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Volume 19 (2); June 2008
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Original Articles
A Study on the Health Status and Need of Health Education of the Elderly: Focused on Some Elders Living in Jeju
Young Ju Son, Eun Young Choi, Young A Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):143-156.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
It is important to identify problems in elders' health through health examination as a part of health service for elders and to execute health education so that elders have appropriate abilities to manage and protect themselves. This study was attempted to assess the need of health education in the elderly and to analyze factors affecting the need of health education.
METHOD
The participants in this study were 354 elderly people living independently in the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province of Korea, and a questionnaire survey was conducted through personal interviews from June 25 to July 26, 2007. The methodology was a descriptive study. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS Win 12.0.
RESULTS
As for the contents of education, elders preferred most the area of 'prevention and management of elderly diseases.' Detailed education contents preferred by elders were the prevention of accidents, diet habits, exercise and weight management, mental health and stress management, complementary and alternative therapies, management of drinking and smoking, etc.
CONCLUSION
According to elders' concerns and needs, systemic health education for the elderly should provide right health knowledge, health maintenance, health promotion and setting of appropriate health education.
Use of Home Nursing Therapy and Need of Home Care Equipments
Ho Sihn Ryu, Chai Soon Park, In A Kim, Young Dae Kwon, Sung Wook Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):157-166.   Published online June 30, 2008
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This study was conducted with whole home care nurses nationwide to provide secondary analyzed data to understand on their usage of medical equipments and their need of them for a month. This study found that treatments given by home care nurses were nelaton catheterization, bladder washing/urethral washing, newborn care, exchange and care for nasogastric tube and suction in that order of frequency. Second, instruments and equipments used for home care were reported to be stethoscope, patient monitor, blood pressure measuring equipment, air flotation mattresses, beds for patients, mattresses, suctioning device sets, enteral feeding equipment and dressing set in that oder of frequency. Moreover, need assessment of medical instruments and equipments showed renal dialysis was most needed and patient monitor, blood pressure measuring equipment, enteral feeding equipment, solution and other supplies for renal dialysis and beds for patient were necessary in that order. In conclusion, the results of this study investigating special treatments and medical instruments and equipments used for home care patients and analyzing patients' need, were expected to be useful for expansion of application of long-term care insurance for the elderly and health insurance as well as for quality control of home care and development of medial instruments and equipments used at home.
The Factors Influencing on Health Promotion Behavior in Low-Income Vulnerable Elementary Students
Hee Sang Yoon, Young Ran Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):167-176.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The goal of this study was to find out factors influencing the health promotion behavior of low-income vulnerable 4th, 5th and 6th-grade elementary school students. The specific goals were: first, to find out difference in health knowledge, self-esteem and health promotion behavior according to general characteristics; second, to investigate the correlations among health knowledge, self-esteem and health promotion; and, third, to analyze factors influencing health promotion behavior.
METHODS
The subjects of this study were 137 low-income vulnerable 4th, 5th and 6th-grade elementary school children who were participating after-school programs in Seoul.
RESULTS
Statistically significant differences were observed in health knowledge, self-esteem and health promotion behavior between girls and boys. In the sub categories, differences were observed in personal hygiene and health responsibility, stress management and personal relationship. The correlation of health promotion behavior with self-esteem and health knowledge was statistically significant. Regression analysis revealed that the influencing factor is self-esteem with the other variables under control.
CONCLUSION
Health promotion education requires low-income vulnerable elementary children to increase their self-esteem. We recommend that it should be one of the most effective ways to split boys and girls to educate them in disparate classrooms.
The Effects of Hope Intervention on the Hope and Quality of Life of Cancer Patients Staying at Home and Cared in Public Health Center
Chung Nam Kim, A Mi Shin, Kyung Min Park, Myong Hwa Park, Yeong Ah Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):177-187.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was to identify the effects of hope intervention on the hope and quality of life of cancer patients staying at home.
METHOD
The study adopted the randomized control group design. The subjects consisted of randomly selected forty cancer patients who were registered at S-Gu Public Health Center. Hope intervention which was composed of hope assessment, positive self identity formation, hope objective setting, therapeutic relationship and spiritual & transcendental process improving, and hope evaluation was provided from October 22, 2007 to November 30, 2007.
RESULT
Hypothesis 1-1 "The experimental group that received hope intervention will have a higher score of hope than the control group", was supported(t=-3.108, p=.004). Hypothesis 1-2 "The experimental group that received hope intervention will have a higher level of hope index than the control group", was supported (t=-4.219, p=.000). Therefore, Hypothesis 1 "The experimental group that received hope intervention will have a higher level of hope than the control group" was supported. Hypothesis 2 "The experimental group that received hope intervention will have a higher level of quality of life than the control group", was not supported (t=-1.726, p=.092).
CONCLUSION
Hope intervention is an effective nursing intervention to enhance hope for patients with cancer staying at home.
The Effect of Health Care Program for Newly Married Couple in a Community Health Care Center
Jae Ran Lim, Hyun Li Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):188-195.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The research purpose was analysis of the effect of a health education program for newly-married executed from 2003 to 2005 as a part of health care service from community health center and providing the fundamental source for health education needed during newly-married.
METHOD
The data collection with structured questionnaires was conducted during October to December in 2006. From the health center 106 brides who participate the program and 130 brides who didn't participate. Health care program for newly married couple were composed health examinations and health educations. Health examinations were CBC, LFT and Ag & Ab prevallence rates of hepatitis B, rubella. Health educations were done two times, the first individual health education was done at enrolled in health center for establishment of desirable couple relationship, family planning, contraception method and management of pre-pregnancy. The second individual health education was done for explanation of blood examination results, prevention of the congenital deformity and the vertical transmission of hepatitis B, management for pregnancy, breast feeding method, introduction to safety delivery method and encouraging self-study using by materials made by health center after two weeks at revisiting health center. SPSS/PC(ver. 12.0) and chi2-test, t-test was used to analyze the collected and tabulated data. Socio-demographic characteristics and regional characteristics of residence area of two groups shows no significant difference.
RESULT
As a variables of experimental effect, The natural childbirth rates of participants group was significantly higher than Non-participants group(p=.012). Breast feeding rates for participants group was also statistically significant higher than Non-participants group. Contraception rates showed no significant difference. The rubella vaccination rates (p=.001) and The hepatitis B vaccination rates (p=.012) shows statistical differences.
CONCLUSION
Therefore health care program for newly married couple in a community health care center was effective generally. We supposed that explore participation ways for non-participants, expand the program to community health care center in whole country.
Factors Affecting of Long Term Care Hospital Patient's Intention of Transfer to a Nursing Home
Ji Yun Lee, Eun Gyung Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):196-204.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
To examine factors affecting long-term care hospital patients' intention of transfer to a nursing home.
METHOD
A questionnaire survey was conducted in Aug. 2007 that included 655 patients from 49 long-term care hospitals. The survey aimed to assess the patients' health status, family status, cost and intention of transfer to a nursing home. Institutional characteristics were analyzed from the nationwide database of Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. The affecting factors were examined by employing chi-square test and logistic regression using SAS 8.2.
RESULT
Of the subjects, 32.4% had intention of transfer to a nursing home. The intention of transfer to a nursing home was affected by moderate or severe pain, living together with the primary carer, high cost uncovered by insurance, and recognition of nursing home.
CONCLUSION
For appropriate service utilization, a higher level of care is needed to satisfy patients at nursing homes and a balanced fee schedule is needed between long term care hospitals and nursing homes. It is desirable to encourage transfer to a nursing home at which nurses support patients and their families by giving information, coordination, and to make efforts to establish a reference system.
A Comparative Study on the Effects of an Individual Intervention Program and a Group Intervention Program on the Demented Elderly and Their Families
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):205-215.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was to compare the effects of individual and group intervention programs on the demented elderly and their families.
METHODS
The programs were applied to two groups, one by home visiting and the other by group intervention. The groups were composed of 14 elders and 12 elders, respectively, with their families. The programs were applied twice a week, ninety minutes per session for four weeks. Programs consisted of cognitive therapy, music and art therapy, and massage for the demented elderly, education on dementia, cognitive-behavioral intervention for problematic behavior, methods to lessen stress, and counselling for the families.
RESULTS
AER, problematic behavior, QOL of pts and QOL, caregiving burden, and relationship with the pts of caregivers were improved after each program but not significantly except QOL of pts (Z=-3.37, p=.00) in the group intervention. When the two interventions were compared with each other, the group intervention program was more effective than the home visiting program in all variables but not significantly except QOL of pts (U=32.00, p=.00).
CONCLUSION
In summary, both the individual and group intervention programs were helpful to both pts and families, and even though tthere was no statistically significant difference between the two intervention programs except in QOL of pts, the group intervention was more effective.
A Study on the Health Status, Burnout, and Burden of Primary Family Caregivers of the Elderly In-Patients
Kwuy Bun Kim, Jung Min Sung, Sohyune R Sok
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):216-225.   Published online June 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to explore the level of health status, burnout, and burden of primary family caregivers of the elderly inpatients, and to identify the relations among the factors.
METHOD
The subjects were a total of 232 primary family caregivers of elderly in-patients at K and E Medical Center, and were surveyed from March 1 to April 10, 2007. Measures were a health status measuring tool based on CMI developed by Brodman et al. (1945), the burnout measuring tool developed by Pines et al. (1981), and the burden measuring tool revised by Jung, Soo-Jin (1998). Data were analyzed by SPSS-WIN 12.0.
RESULTS
Firstly, the mean of health status was 1.69, which means that they were mostly healthy, and the mean of burnout was 2.66, which means that they were a little burned out. The mean of burden was 2.71, which means that they were a little burdened. Second, there were high correlations between health status and burnout, between health status and burden, and between burnout and burden. Third, there were significant difference in health status and burnout according to sex and relationship, and in burden according to sex, education level and relationship.
CONCLUSIONS
Nurses need to consider the characteristics, health status, burnout, and burden of primary family caregivers.
The Effect of an Empowerment Health Management Program on Self-esteem and the Quality of Life for the Urban Elderly
Kyung Min Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):226-233.   Published online June 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose was to test the effect of an empowerment health management program on self-esteem and the quality of life for the elderly who live in cities.
METHODS
Forty-three elders were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the intervention to participate in one year's empowerment practice (one home visiting per week and phone counselling) (n=21) or to the control group that got home visiting only (n=22). The data was analyzed using ANCOVA.
RESULTS
There was no significant difference in the self-esteem score between the two groups after the intervention. But the quality of life score of the experimental group was significantly different from that of the control group after the intervention.
CONCLUSIONS
The health management intervention using empowerment for the elderly living alone with chronic diseases in urban areas had positive effects on the quality of life. Therefore this intervention can be broadly applied to other elders living alone with chronic diseases in urban areas.
The Effects of Smoking Cessation through a Smoking Cessation Counselling Program on Expiratory CO Concentration, BMI, Blood Pressure, Liver Function, and Lipid Metabolism in Smoking Cessation Successes
Kun Ja Lee, Myung Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):234-246.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was performed in order to examine the effects of an smoking cessation counselling program for smoking cessation success.
METHOD
Among a total of 468 persons who had ceased from smoking for 6-months and had visited the smoking cessation clinic of a public health center from January 2nd to December 31th in 2006, 61 in all who had a negative reaction in the urine nicotine check were selected for this study. Collected data were expiratory CO concentration, BMI, blood pressure, liver function, and lipid metabolism. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, repeated measured ANOVA and paired t-test with the SPSS/PC(Version 12.0) program.
RESULT
There were significant changes in expiratory CO concentration, SBP, DBP, AST, ALT, and TG, but not in BMI, gamma-GTP, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C.
CONCLUSION
This study showed that smoking cessation through a smoking cessation counselling program has partially positive effects for smoking cessation success. The results of this study show that the smoking cessation counselling program at the smoking cessation clinic of a public health center should be continued for smoking cessation success.
Development of a Teacher-Efficacy Scale for Health Education Teachers
Chung Ran Yi, Nak Won Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):247-259.   Published online June 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to develop a teacher-efficacy scale which is adequate for heath education teachers.
METHOD
A preliminary questionnaire was made based on the hypothetical factors. A total of 364 health education teachers answered to the preliminary test, and the potential factors of teacher-efficacy were checked out by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In the main test 378 health education teachers answered, the factor structure was drawn by EFA, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test and the fitness of the factor model.
RESULTS
Through the preliminary test, 5 potential factors were found, which were instruction, health-service, administrative task, interpersonal relationship, and community connection. Also, 48 items were reduced to 31 items. Through the main test, from the 34 items were extracted 4 factors with 24 items, And then teacher-efficacy scale was developed, which included the subscales of instruction efficacy, health-service efficacy, task-interpersonal efficacy, and community connection efficacy.
CONCLUSION
Different from that for other subject teachers, the factor structure for health teachers had 4 factors with 24 items. The scale developed in this study is consistent with health teachers' work areas, and for this reason, has significance as a adequate and valid scale to measure teacher-efficacy of health education teachers.
Health Status and Utilization of Long-term Care Facility in the Urban and Rural Aged
Hung Sa Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):260-269.   Published online June 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in health status and the utilization of long-term care service between urban and rural aged residents in Korea.
METHODS
Through convenience sampling, 1,405 elders (829 from urban areas and 576 from rural areas) were selected during March 1 to May 31 in 2004. All the subjects agreed to participate and filled out the survey questionnaire after signing the consent form. The instruments utilized in this study were the impairment of physio-sensory function, ADL IADL, cognitive function, and psycho-social function scale. This instrument was developed by modifying the scale developed by Gurland & Wilder (1984). Data was analyzed using the SPSS Win program.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in economic status, duration of living and type of medical insurance between rural and urban elderly(p<.05). Physio-sensory functions (t=4.53, p<.001), ADL (t=3.61, p<.001), IADL (t=2.45, p=.014), cognitive functions (t=-2.63, p=.024) and psycho-social functions (t=3.69, p<.001) were significantly different between the two groups. The utilization of long-term care facility in the urban elderly was significantly higher than that in the rural elderly (chi2=10.14, p<.001).
CONCLUSION
Considering these findings, the need for long-term care should be assessed by residence characteristics. Because of different utilization of long term care facility according to the elderly's needs, long-term care services should be considered the residence characteristics.
A Study on the Relations among Anger Expression Mode, Depression, and Aggression in Vocational High School Students
Hee Sook Kim, Sung Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):270-279.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among anger expression mode, depression and aggression in vocational high school students and to preview a method to help adolescents who have the tendency of anger, depression or aggression tendency in community mental health situation.
METHOD
In order to get the data by self-reporting questionnaire, 372 subjects were selected from Oct. 1, 2006 to Dec. 18, 2006. The instruments for this study were Spielberger's Anger Expression Scale, Beck's Depression Scale, and Buss & Durkee's Aggression Scale. The dada was analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient using the SPSS 12.0 program.
RESULT
There were significantly positive correlations between anger-in and depression, and between anger-in and aggression. Also there were significantly positive correlations between anger-out and depression, and between anger-out and aggression. There was a significantly positive correlation between depression and aggression.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to develop a strategy to decrease depression and aggression, and to increase positive anger expression mode for vocational high school students.
The Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Abdominal Pain and Dysmenorrhea in Female University Students
Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):280-289.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of auricular acupressure therapy on the relief of dysmenorrhea and abdominal pain in female university students.
METHOD
This study was designed as non-equivalent control group research. Data were collected from 44 of the female university students(Exp.: 22, Cont.: 22) from October, 2007 to December, 2007. Collected data were analysed through chi2 test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test.
RESULT
Abdominal pain was significantly decreased partially in the experimental group compared to that of the control group(p=.008). Dysmenorrhea was significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to that of the control group(p=.000).
CONCLUSION
It was proven that auricular acupressure therapy was effective for abdominal pain and dysmenorrhea.
A Review of the Trends of Journal Research on Dementia and Nursing Interventions for Demented Elders
Kook Hee Roh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):300-309.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to review research trends and show the developmental direction of studies on dementia and nursing interventions for demented elders.
METHODS
This study analyzed 104 articles on dementia and 23 on nursing interventions for demented elders published until 2007.
RESULTS
These dementia studies increased in quantity after 1996, mainly in studies on demented elders and their families and in quantitative studies. Nursing intervention methods were music, light, horticultural therapy, reminiscence and complex therapeutic program, etc. There were experimental studies after 1996, but non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was 8(34.8%) of 23(100.0%). The medium sample size was 16.6 for experimental groups, 13 for control groups. The experimental time range was 10-120 minutes a day, frequency was 1-18 a week, and the total frequency was 4-72. The result variables were cognitive function, dementia behavior, emotion, depression, ADL, social behavior, etc.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this review suggest that studies on dementia have been improved in quantity since 1996, but various and effective research methods should be developed as a way to further improve the quality of studies.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing