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Volume 20 (2); June 2009
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Original Articles
A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Aromatherapy on Psychological Variables in Nursing
Kook He Roh, Hyeoun Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):113-122.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of aromatherapy on anxiety, depression, and stress.
METHODS
Medical and nursing literature databases were searched to identify studies comparing aromatherapy with a control group.
RESULTS
Thirty-one studies published till September 2008 were included in the analysis. Twenty-two studies showed that aromatherapy generally had positive effects on the anxiety level (ES: 0.61). Thirteen studies showed that aromatherapy has significantly decreased the depression level (ES: 0.91). Seven studies showed that aromatherapy had positive effect on the stress level (ES: 0.78). Further analysis found that aromatherapy was more effective for normal population than for patients group with anxiety and stress. On the contrary, aromatherapy was more effective for patients group than for general population with depression.
CONCLUSION
Aromatherapy had positive effect on anxiety, depression and stress level. But there was no sufficient evidence to show the two different aromatherapy methods and two different period of aromatherapy had different effects due to small sample size and heterogeneity of sample. And it was needed to perform follow-up and further comparative studies.
Development of an Intervention List for Family Nursing Care
Young Im Kim, Hee Gerl Kim, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):123-133.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study aimed to classify nursing interventions by developing a list of interventions for family nursing care.
METHODS
A new intervention list was confirmed after the researchers' discussion and professional consult. All possible interventions were re-organized.
RESULTS
Five grand categories were identified, which include health education, providing direct nursing care, utilization and referral of community resources, reinforcing family resources, and stress management. The category of health education consists of anticipatory guidance, training and education, providing information, and consult and motivation. The category of providing direct nursing care consists of identifying problem, providing technical nursing, providing family tailored nursing care, family contract, monitoring or evaluation, and collaboration with experts. The utilization and referral of community services includes utilization of health care facilities, utilization of social welfare facilities, use of neighbors, friends, and relatives, connecting to professionals or supporting groups, and utilization of other sources. Reinforcing family resources includes reinforcing economic resources, reinforcing physical resources, and reinforcing human resources. Stress management includes reorganization of perception, resolving conflicts, division of role, preparing communication strategies, time management, creating familiarity, supporting spirituality, and developing sense of humor.
CONCLUSION
This study provides useful resources to promote nursing activities by identifying possible family nursing interventions.
A Study on the Satisfaction of Web-Based Health Education Programs
Soon Nyoung Yun, Jeong Eun Kim, In Sook Lee, Bok Im Lee, Eun Jun Park, Soo Yeon Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):134-142.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to present the process of web-based educational program (WEP) development and to identify factors affecting satisfaction with WEP for the certificate of healthcare managers working at the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC).
METHODS
Subjects were healthcare managers and voluntary participants of WEP. A total of 1,449 respondents were surveyed through an online questionnaire about their satisfaction with the educational contents and system.
RESULTS
The mean contents satisfaction was 3.75 (SD 0.54), and system satisfaction 4.68 (SD 0.54). According to statistical analysis, the type of certification, experience and professional career of health care management affected contents satisfaction. And factors affecting system satisfaction were the type of certification and gender.
CONCLUSION
WEP was utilized as a pre-requisite course for the certificate program of healthcare managers. However, the development of advanced WEP is suggested to meet the educational needs of healthcare managers who have certificate or license and their job related to healthcare management.
The hs-CRP Levels and the Metabolic Syndrome according to Glucose Intolerance in Inhabitants of Rural Communities
Jong Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):143-151.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the relations and odds ratio between hs-CRP and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome according to glucose intolerance and diabetes among the residents of a rural community.
METHODS
The subjects include 1,968 adults aged from 40 to 70 who were divided into four groups and a diabetes group according to glucose intolerance to compare the relations and risk ratio between hs-CRP and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS
The results reveal that the greater the subjects' glucose intolerance was, the higher their hs-CRP became and the more risk factors of metabolic syndrome they had. The impaired glucose tolerance group showed 1.7 times higher blood pressure than the control group. The diabetes group showed a high odds ratio with 2.3 times higher blood pressure, 2.2 times higher abdominal obesity, and 2.4 times higher W/Ht than the control group. And the odds ratio increased significantly by 1.7 times in the hs-CRP intermediate risk group and 2.5 times in the high risk group compared with the control group.
CONCLUSION
Considering the study results, it is very important to monitor abdominal obesity, blood pressure and the intermediate and high risk group of hs-CRP in order to reduce the contraction of cardiovascular diseases.
Analysis of Service Occupation Types and Training Programs of Services for the Aged in Busan
Jung Soon Kim, In Sook Jung, Myoung Soo Kim, Yun Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):152-160.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to analyze service occupation types and to develop training programs for the aged.
METHODS
This study used descriptive study design. The research process consisted of three stages: first, identified the demand of service manpower for the aged; second, investigated present jobs and education programs in Korea and Japan; and last, developed service jobs and education programs for the aged.
RESULTS
Potential users considered "health management" to be the most important area. They thought "providing job" as second most important. According to the result of analyzing Korean policies, there were 9 service occupations in 5 domains. So, we derived 10 occupations such as 'daily living manager', 'care manager', 'care worker', 'health manager', 'education specialist', 'leisure manager', 'good manager', 'housing manager', 'financial specialist' and 'retirement consultant' in 5 domains as healthcare, leisure, goods, housing and finance. Finally, we developed their tailored training programs.
CONCLUSION
According to this study, there should be various occupations qualified by the government, and training programs should be settled. And healthcare providers must included in developing standardized training programs.
Comparison of Perceived Health Status, Health Promoting Behaviors and Depression between Korean and Foreign Students at a Women's University
Eun Young Do, In Sook Cho
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):161-168.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This research was conducted to investigate perceived health status, health promoting behaviors and depression level in Korean and foreign students at women's university.
METHODS
The sample group of this study consists of 100 Korean students at a women's university and 98 foreign students from China and Vietnam who were enrolled at the same university in G City. The research results were analyzed using the SAS program (Version 8.2) with Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and t-test.
RESULTS
1) The Korean students showed a significantly higher score in drinking and smoking than foreign students. Also, age, religion, part time job, stress and allowance were significantly different between the two groups. 2) The foreign students showed a significantly higher score in perceived health status and health promoting behavior than the Korean students. 3) The foreign students showed a significantly higher score in depression than the Korean students.
CONCLUSION
In the development of health programs for foreign students, it is necessary to focus on reducing depression and to consider the traditions of their own countries. It is desired to conduct further study about health promoting behavior and factors affecting health with respect to the countries where the foreign students originated.
A Study on the Health Status, ADL, Depression and Life Satisfaction by Gender and Stage of Exercise Change among the Rural Elderly
Nam Sook Seo, Young Hae Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):169-178.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to find perceived health status, ADL, depression, and life satisfaction among the rural elderly and to explore differences according to gender and the stage of exercise change.
METHODS
This is an exploratory survey study. The subjects were 365 elders consisting of 140 men (38.4%) and 225 women (61.6%) in a rural area in Korea. Data were collected from December, 2006 to January, 2007 using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, t-test, ANOVA, and Scheffe's test using the SPSS/WIN 10.0.
RESULTS
The mean scores of perceived health status and ADL were lower and depression was higher in women than in men. There were statistically significant differences in perceived health status according to the stage of exercise change. Also there were significant differences in the scores of ADL, depression, and life satisfaction according to the stage of exercise change.
CONCLUSION
The tailored exercise seems to decrease depression while promoting physical health status and life satisfaction among the rural elderly. We suggest considering the client's intention and motivation when developing exercise programs.
A Study on Health Behaviors, Health Status and Anxiety about Aging for the Elderly: Focused on the Elderly in Senior Center
Yoo Sun Shin, Eun Ha Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):179-188.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is conducted to survey and examine the relationships among anxiety about aging, perceived health status and health promoting behaviors in the elderly, and to provide basic data for health promoting interventions that would improve their successful aging.
METHODS
Data in this study was collected from 333 elderly participants living in Busan. Descriptive statistics, t-test or ANOVA with Scheffe's test, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis.
RESULTS
The major findings of this study were as follows. 1) The mean score of anxiety about aging was 2.67 +/- 0.30, perceived health status 2.46 +/- 0.37, and health promoting behavior 2.77 +/- 0.21. 2) There was a positive correlation between health promoting behavior and perceived health status (r = 267, p = .000). There was a negative correlation between anxiety about aging and health promoting behavior (r = -.163, p = .003). 3) Health-promoting behavior was significantly associated with perceived health and anxiety about aging, which explained 20.9% of variance in health-promoting behavior.
CONCLUSION
In order to promote perceived health status and to decrease anxiety about aging in the elderly, it is necessary to develop supporting interventions to decrease anxiety about aging.
Factors Influencing Depression of the Elderly
Kwuy Bun Kim, Sohyune R Sok
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):197-206.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to examine factors related to depression of the elderly, and using them, to lay the ground for the development of nursing intervention.
METHODS
This was a descriptive correlation study. The subjects were 581 elders aged over 65 from senior centers in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regression with SAS.
RESULTS
The predictors of depression in the elderly were quality of life, moral, life satisfaction, self-esteem, loneliness, nonformal support, and perceived health state. Among them, quality of life was the most significant predictor in the elderly. These factors explained 72.2% of the total variance.
CONCLUSION
These findings suggest the need to develop nursing strategies for decreasing depression in the elderly. To decrease the depression of the elderly, the above-mentioned major influencing factors should be considered.
The Effects of an Internet Addiction Prevention Program on Middle School Students
Aeran Joo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):207-214.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an Internet addiction prevention program on middle school students' stress and Internet addiction.
METHODS
This research adopted the non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design, and was conducted with 40 middle school students who were selected through convenient sampling and assigned to an experimental group or a control group. Data were collected from September 5, 2007 to September 27, 2007, and analyzed using the SPSS/WIN program by frequency, chi2-test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test.
RESULTS
The results of the experiment supported the hypothesis that the experimental group would have lower stress scores and Internet addiction scores than the control group.
CONCLUSION
After 8 sessions of the Internet addiction prevention program, it was found the program was effective to reduce stress and Internet addiction.
A Study on Parenting Attitude and Stress according to Personality Type in Elementary School Students' Mothers
Hyo Jung Koh, Yun Hee Kwon, Min Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):215-224.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was performed to examine parenting attitude and stress according to personality type in elementary school students' mothers.
METHODS
The subjects consisted of 206 mothers of students. The measurement instrument was the questionnaire consisting of Korean-version MBTI and PSI test. Data was collected from March 15th to April 15th, 2008.
RESULTS
Among personality types by function, ST type was most, occupying 60.2%. Among personality types by temperament, SJ type was most, occupying 59.2%. The score of affective attitude was highest among the parenting attitudes. Parenting attitude was significantly different according to age, education, economic status, number of children, planned pregnancy, factor of stress, and family type. Parenting stress was significantly different according to planned pregnancy and factor of stress. In parenting attitudes by personality types, affective attitude was significantly different. Parenting stress was significantly different according to personality type by function. There was a negative correlation between affective and autonomic attitudes and parenting stress. There was a positive correlation between rejective attitude and parenting stress.
CONCLUSION
It would be essential to provide dynamic developmental programs for increasing the children's social ability, and nursing intervention, education and counseling programs for decreasing parenting stress through understanding mothers' personality type.
Analysis of the Factors Affecting to Youth Smoking Based on the Stage of Change
Yun Jeong Yi, Soon Nyoung Yun, Young Ko, Mi Kyoung Chang, Bo Ra Nam
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):225-233.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to analyse the factors affecting youth smoking, especially self-efficacy and perceived social norm, based on the stage of change.
METHODS
A self-reported survey was conducted during the period from the 21st of April to the 17th of May, 2008. Data were collected from 10,707 students of 12 middle schools in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Incheon. The data were analysed with SPSS/WIN 15.0.
RESULT
The smoking possibility was 2.18 times higher in the male students than in female students, and 1.76 times higher in 8th-grade students and 2.48 times higher in 9th-grade students than in 7th-grade ones. Smoking possibility increased when students had more experience in alcohol, more friends who smoke, or worse relationship with their parents. Also this study showed that high-level self-efficacy and perceived social norm were acting as inhibiting factors of smoking.
CONCLUSION
To reduce the youth's smoking rate, smoking prevention programs should provide educational chances to learn knowledge and skills on how to reject smoking temptation. Also, someone significant like parents should make it clear to the youth that they do not want their children to smoke.
The Levels of Impacts of Events, Depression and Anxiety among Injured Workers
Chong Mi Chang, Nam Hee Choi, Hyun Sook Kang, Sun Hee Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):234-242.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of accidental events, depression, and anxiety among workers with industrial accidents in South Korea.
METHODS
The participants were 510 workers with industrial accidents. Data were collected by personal interviews with structured questionnaires for three months from August to October in 2005. For analyses, frequencies and means were utilized.
RESULTS
The participants' average age was 44.9 years, and about 91% of them were male. Also, they had a greater risk of poverty after being injured. The most frequent cause of accidents was fall (32.2%), and the most frequent injured body area was extremities (73.9%). For around a half of the participants, the treatment period was 12 months or shorter. The participants were at great risk of experiencing a negative impact due to events, depression, and anxiety.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to develop: (a) strategies for injured workers to be financially stable during recuperation; and (b) supporting systems for them not to suffer and exacerbate mental health problems after being injured.
Quality Dimension of Long Term Care Hospital
Chun Mi Kim, Ji Yun Lee, Ryeo Jin Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):243-250.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This is a qualitative study to identify dimensions of long-term care hospital care quality that provide high-level medical services for long-term care patients in Korea.
METHODS
Service consumers and providers were interviewed, and collected data were analyzed into thesis, type and dimension. The focus group method was applied to two provider groups and individual interview was applied to two persons who had experienced a long-term care hospital.
RESULTS
The results of analyzing the comsumers and providers was integrated into 8 dimensions: physical environment, staff, clinical care and nursing, multiplicity of activity program, atmosphere, interaction with family, nutrition, and quality improvement system.
CONCLUSION
The dimensions of long-term care hospital care quality from this study can be used as a basis of quality indicators. Quantitative studies to test these dimensions are required for establishing quality management systems.
Comparison of the Characteristics of Smoking Cessation Success between Short-term and Long-term Success Groups
Young Sook Kim, Kun Ja Lee, Yeo Jin Yi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):251-258.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The study aimed to compare characteristics associated with smoking and smoking cessation of those who had succeeded in smoking cessation.
METHODS
Data were collected from January to June, 2008. The subjects were 9,819 smokers who were registered at the smoking cessation clinic of public health centers in Incheon. Four characteristics (demographic, health promotion, smoking, smoking cessation) were compared between 6-week (short-term) and 6-month (long-term) success groups.
RESULTS
There was a significant difference between the 6-week and 6-month success groups for smoking cessation in demographic characteristics (gender, age, job, social security), health promotion (BMI, alcohol dependency, BP), smoking (first smoking age, smoking duration, expiration CO concentration, nicotine dependency), and smoking cessation (attempt to quit smoking, reason for smoking cessation, information source for registration).
CONCLUSION
The group of short-term smoking cessation success was younger than the other. Also, short-term success group was of lower socioeconomic class than the other. The 6-month success group had a larger number of attempts to quit smoking. Therefore, smoking cessation policy should be focused more on younger people and those in lower socioeconomic status. These groups should be given advice on smoking cessation motives and more frequent counseling for smoking cessation.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing