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Volume 13 (4); December 2002
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Original Articles
Development of School Health Nursing Phenomena in Korea by Retrospective Method of ICNP
Young Im Kim, Soon Ok Yang, Myoung Ja Wang, Chung Nam Kim, Hyeon Suk Kim, Tae Nam Park, Mi Ja Chung, Hye Jin Hyun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):595-607.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The objectives of this study were to identify the phenomena of school health nursing at schools in Korea and to contribute to building a school health domain of international Classification for Nursing Practice. A retrospective method was used in this study to develop ICNP during the period from July to October 2001. The procedure of the study involved choosing nursing phenomena using preliminary terms from the reports on the field of school health nursing practice documented by nursing students in 10 different nursing colleages. The detail procedures of the study were as follows. 1) Choosing nursing phenomena by using preliminary terms 2) Choosing the characteristics of school health nursing practice from the selected nursing phenomena 3) In order to make a consensus regarding the appropriate characteristics of phenomena 15 study group members re-categorized the nursing phenomena through 5 times of cyber meetings and 3 times of formal meetings. 4) To verify each characteristic 5 community nursing faculties and 25 school health nurses participated in procedure to give scores on nursing characteristics. 5) classification of the definite nursing phenomena and characteristics. Following the 5 step procedures school health nursing phenomena were categorized into human and environmental domains Human domains were classified into human behavioral and functional domains Environmental domains were classified into physical and psychosocial domains. The essential characteristics of each phenomena were selected when it obtains the mean score of 3.0 or over at the related characteristics The human behavioral domain consisted of 7 phenomena including risk for spinal disorder inadequate dietary habit inadequate weight control smoking and substance abuse inadequate stress management inadequate sex related coping strategies and inadequate accident management. The human functional domain consisted of 6 phenomena including inadequate eye care and visual management risk for respiratory disorder inadequate dental health care inappropriate infectious disease control risk for gastrointestinal disorder and lack of sexual identify. The physical environmental domain consisted of 6 phenomena including risk for incident at inside classroom risk for incident at outside classroom risk for incident around school risk for exposure to hazardous facilities around school inadequate garbage and disposal management and inadequate physical environment for learning. The psychosocial domain included impaired social interaction at school. Each phenomenon was composed of 2 to 8 characteristics and all phenomena will include a total number of 85 characteristics. The phenomena of school health nursing in Korea partially confirmed school health architecture of ICNP further study on verification of school health nursing phenomena in Korea needs to be done to support the finding of this study through review of literature on nursing classifications or field studies.
Analysis of Phenomena and Characteristics of Family Nursing in Korea by INCP
Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Soon Nyung Yun, Hye Sun Jung, Jin Kyung Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):608-617.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The purpose of this study was to analyze phenomena and characteristics of family nursing in Korea based on the study by Yun et al. (1999) by ICNP. The subjects of this study were 115 reports on family nursing care in Korea National Open University. The results of this study were as follows: 1. In the phenomenon of family nursing 'Inappropriate family coping' comprised of 17.0% and 'Inadequate care for a sick mumber' comprised of 16.8% 2. It was found that ' A few close neighbors was 62.5% 'Lack of communication between married couple' was 60.0% 'Neglet of general child rearing' was 40.9% 'Closed communication pattern of the head of a family' was 36.0% and 'Inadequate distribution of each family member's role' was 27.2% 3' Lack of family interaction in community' and 'Social isolation' were combined with 'Lack of family interaction in community' an 'Disturbance in family communication' and 'Lack of family intimacy' were combined with 'Disturbance in family communication' 4. 'Dual-loading with office work and housework' 'Overload of caring one's elders because of the status as a dual-income family ' and 'Lack of family support system' were added into 'Inappropriate family coping'.
An Analysis of Studies of Workers Stress conducted in Korea from 1981 to 2000
Jeong Hee Kim, Soon Nyung Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):618-628.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The purpose of this study were to identify patterns and trends of nursing studies of workers' stress conducted in Korea over the last two decades and to suggest the direction of future research activities Research studies of workers' stress were collected from the abstract and the title lists of studies using internet search. The total number of studies used for this study was 118. The analysis of these studies showed that the studies of workers' stress have increased rapidlly since 1995 but most of them were non-experimental design studies. They tended to be conducted more on nurses. and used confusedly in stress terms Instruments developed by the authors were the most popular Morever the organizational variables of the stress-related concept were barely used except nurses' stress. Therefore it was needed to identify and clarify the terms of stress among the authors and to develop the workers' stress management programs and examine their effects. Especially studies that include the organizational variables of workers' stress need to be done in the future.
A Study on Factors Influencing Dementia Management Strategies and Their relationships with Primary Caregivers' Burden
Hyeon Sun Lee, Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):629-638.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The impact of chronic diseases on patients and their families depends on how well the family members cope with it. Therefore research on strategies for facilitation the coping of the families in a desirable manner is very important. Dementia management strategies reger to specific means families of dementia patients use to dope with dementing illness of their family members. This study was designed to examine type of dementia management strategies utilized by families and to identify factors influencing them. The subjects in this study were 103 conveniently selected demented patients and their primary caregivers who were registered to a public gealth center located in Chungcheong Province. The subjects were visited by 20 home visiting nurses and the data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The data were collected form May 2. 2001 to June 2. 2001 The finding of this study were as follows. 1. the most frequently used types of dementia management strategies were active management (M=3.36 S.D=.96) and encouragement (m=2.94 S.D=.99) Criticism was least used type of dementia management strategy (M=2.71 S.D=.99) 2. The factors influencing each management strategy were as follows: 1) The criticism management strategy was most frequently used by the primary caregivers who graduated elementary school (F=3.21 p<.05). 2) The encouragement strategy was most frequently used by the primary caregivers in a case when the patients were in the mild stage of dementia (F=2.76 p<.05) when the patients never had any treatment experience (F=2.01 p<.05) when the family could afford the provision of treatment for the patients (F=-2.44 p<.050) and when the primary caregiver had a job(t=2.90 p<.01). 3) The active management strategy was most widely used by the primary caregivers who could afford the provision of treatment for the patients (F=-2.31 p<.05) and were in their 70s (F=3.04 p<.05) This type of management strategy was significantly more used by those who discussed the difficulties of caring with their family members(F=3.46 p<.05). 3. The use of criticism management strategies was significantly correlated with the total level of burden of the primary caregivers But the types of encouragement and active management strategies had negative correlations with the caregivers' burden although they were not significant Since the findings of this study showed that the criticism management strategy had a significantly positive relationship with caregivers' burden those who are more likely to use the negative management strategy should be identified in future studies The primary caregivers who are more likely to use negative strategy should be more likely to use negative strategy should be more closely monitored and be focuse as th group sho should be intervened in future studies.
A Correlational Study on Perceived Sex life and Depression in Old Men
Seon Suk Kwon, Myoung Hee Kim, Won Yoo Lee, In Soon Lee, Yeon Kang Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):639-647.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
Sexuality is important for the quality of life in old men but this issue has been less explored due to social prejudice. Therefore this study was carried out to describe a correlation between sex life and depression perceived by old men.
METHOD
The subjects were 370 old men who were aged over 60 and lived in a city and three provinces. Instruments used in this study were perception of sex life scale (11 items) and depression scale (20 items). The data was collected from December 2001 to February 2002 by written responses of the subjects to the questionnaire as well as one-to-one interview by research assistants for subjects. Statistical analysis for the data was done using SPSS and the level of significance was tested at 95% of confidence interval.
RESULT
1) Mean age of the subjects was 69.35+/-5.70 A total of 253 subjects (68.6%) had spouse and 191 of the subjects (52.3%) had sexual intercourse as frequently as 3 times per month. The average score of perception of sex life was 21.25+/-5.06 out of the total score of 44 and that of depression was 35.08+/-9.29 out of the total score of 80 2) Perception of sex life was statistically significant by age education disease medication living arrangement marital status presence of girlfriend pattern of inter-coitus pocket money age of last coitus subjective health state age of last coitus subjective health state and relationship (P<0.05) 3) Depression was statistically significant by age education disease medication living arrangement marital status satisfaction for marriage life pattern of inter coitus feeling for change of sex life pocket money subjects health state and relationship (P<0.05) 4) The correlation between perception of sex life and depression was negative showing that depression tended to decrease as perception of sex life increases.
CONCLUSION
It is concluded that depression in old men is colsely related to their sex life. Positive sex life may have an important effect on the quality of life in old men.
A Study on a Coping Method of the Family Caregivers of Demented Patients
Gwang Soo Yoo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):648-667.   Published online December 31, 2002
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This was a descriptive study designed to identify the level fo coping method and its influencing factors on the family caregivers of demented patients and resolve the family caregivers' level of stress. The data were collected from September 10 to October 10 2001 snbjects for this study were recruited from four clinics which were chosen from 15 clinics located in Chunbuk-Do as the study sites because of their cooperation for the study. They were similar in terms of size the characteristics of the local community and the population and registration status of the demented patients. The instruments used for the study were as follows: 1. Problematic behaviors of demented patients are measured by the memory and behavior problem checklist(Zarit 1980) and the linguistic communication symptoms Questionnaire(bayles and Tomoeda 1991) 2. The ability to carry out daily activities was measured using the Barthel index(1965) and Katz index (1963) which as well-known ADL assessment methods 3. Burden was measured using cost of care index by th kosberg and Cairl (1986) 4. Coping strategy was measured Bell's 18 methods (1977). The data were analyzed using SPSS/PC. The study results were as follows 1. The total stress score was 2.90 out of a maximum score of 5 The highest score reported was 3.09 on the dimension of restriction of individual and social activities and the lowest region reported was 2.58 on the dimension of mental and physical health 2. The total score of the coping method was 2.65 out of a maxumum score of 5 The highest score reported was 4.01 on the dimension of thinking that includes an ideation such that it is better than any possible worst case and the lowest score reported was 1.45 on the dimension of the self-image as a scapegoat 3. There were significant differences in coping method among the subjects by age (F=2.752 p=0.04) caregiver (F=4.33 p=0.003) care-giving period (F+2.68 p=0.049) and dementia stage (F=2.87 p=0.034) 4. There were highly negative correlations (gamma=-0.301 p=0.000) between problematic behaviors of demented patients and the coping method of their family caregivers The highest correlation coefficient (gamma=-0.339 p=0.000) was found between aggressive behaviors of the demented patients and the coping method of their family caregivers. 5. There was a low negative correlation (gamma=-0.201 p=0.019) between the ADL of the demented patients and the coping method of their family caregivers 6. There were highly negative correlations (gamma=-0.213 p=0.005) between stress and the coping method of the family caregivers The highest correlation was found between financial burden (gamma=-.327 p=.000) and the coping method of the family caregivers. There was no significant correlation among unpleasant aspects of the demented patients willingness to the demented patients and the coping method of the family caregivers.
The Experience of Institutionalization by the Elderly
Ga Eon Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):668-678.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The number of nursing home residents has been increasing in Korea. Nurses need to know the lived experience of relocation of the elderly to long-term care facilities. However studies on this issue has not yet been conducted in Korea Therefore this study was carried out to understand the experience of institutionalization of the elderly using a phenomenological approach.
METHOD
There were 11 participants who consisted of 5 men and 6 women living in 3 different nursing homes. The data was collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation from June 1999 to October 2001 and analyzed by Colazzi's phenomenological method.
RESULT
A total of 275 meaningful statements related to the experience of institutionalization by the elderly were obtained Of the 275 statements. 175 were found as the statements with more general forms 28 themes were grouped into 8 theme clusters. These theme clusters included resentment at their sons irresistible admission humiliation on institutionalization being unbearable to shock grief to unfamiliarity being in agony of outwards regret for self-life and comfort for new residence.
CONCLUSION
Based on these results we con understand the lived experience of institutionalization of the Korean elderly We need to develop a nursing program to help the elderly cope with this crisis and studies about the familys experience on their parents admission to institutionalized facility warrant further exploration.
Factors Influencing Quality of Life in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Registered at Public Health Center
Yeon Sook Park, Soon Hang Ryu
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):679-688.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-care self-care agency self-efficacy and quality of life in type II Diabetic patients registered at a public health center.
METHOD
The study subjects were 128 type II diabetic patients who were living in G city. The data were collected from March 2001 to February 2002 The instruments used for this study were the self-care scale developed by Jeung(1997) and designed by Park (1984) based on the original scale the self-care agency scale developed by so (1992) the self-efficacy scale developed by Jeung (1997) and designed by Paek (1996) based on the original scale and the quality of life scale developed by Ro (1988) The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression.
RESULTS
1. The relationships among self-care. self-care agency self-efficacy and quality of life were significant. Self-care was significantly related to self-care agency (r=.609 p<.01) self-efficacy(r=.763 p<.01) and quality of life (r=.493 p<.01) 2. The stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify factorss influencing quality of life of the subjects. The most powerful predictor was self-care agency (48.4%) The combination of self-care complication status age education level and self-efficacy accounted for 88.7% of the variance of quality of life in type II diabetic patients.
CONCLUSION
The results suggest that self-care self-care agency self-efficacy and quality of life are important variables for development of nursing intervention programs for patients with diabetes.
A Comparative Study of Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction in the Urban and Rural Elderly
Mi Kyung Sim, Jeong Mo Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):689-698.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The study was carried out to identify the correlations among social support depression and life satisfaction and compare them between the rural and urban elderly.
METHOD
The study participants included 57 rural elderly and 59 urban elderly who were surveyed and interviewed using social support and depression like satisfaction inventories by nursing students from May 2002 to June 2002.
RESULT
The mean scores of social support and life satisfaction in the urban elderly were higher than those in the rural elderly However signigicant differences in the variables between the two elderly groups were not found. The mean score of depression in the rural elderly was higher than that in the urban elderly but a significant difference between the two groups indepression was not found. Social support was significantly correlates with age religion health status in the urban elderly and with significantly correlated with religion monthly expenditure health status in the both groups Life satisfaction was significantly correlated with age marital status religion monthly expenditure in the urban elderly and with health status in the rural elderly. Social support depression and life satisfaction were correlated each other in the urban elderly. The significant correlations were found between depression and life satisfaction and between social support and life satisfaction in the rural elderly.
CONCLUSION
the results suggest that further replicated studies are needed with larger samples. Appropriate nursing interventions with the consideration of characteristics of the rural and urban elderly are needed and developed to improve their social support and depression.
Perceived Benefits and Barriers of Exercise in Community-Dwelling Adults at a Local City in Korea
Hee Kyoung Hyoung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):699-709.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
This descriptive study was aimed to assess the perceived benefits/barriers of exercise in community-dwelling adults in K city in Korea and to provide a basic data for developing an exercise program for them as a nursing intervention.
METHOD
The study subjects were 520 adults who lived in th K city. The data were collected from February 2 to March 5 2002 The perceived benefits/barriers of exercise were measured by the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS). The EBBS was developed by Sechrist Walker & Pender (1987) and revised by Jamg & Shin(1999).
RESULTS
The adults reported that the exercise benefits were moderately high and the exercise barriers were moderately low. A significant relationship was found between the reported level of exercise and the perceived benefits/barriers of exercise Age gender, marital status, education, residence type were significantly correlated with perceived exercise benefits/barriers (p<.05).
CONCLUSION
Community health nurses should plan exercise programs that minimize the perceived benefits of exercise. In addition those exercise program should be implemented in the consideration of several demographic characteristics of the clinents.
The Relationship between Fatigue and Self-efficacy in Patients with Lung Concer
Sue Kyung Sohn, Ji Hyun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):710-718.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between fatigue and self-efficacy in patients with lung cancer.
METHOD
The data was collected from January 21th to April 8th 2001 The study subjects were recruited from K hospital in Pusan Korea Their fatigue was measured using the 22-item Revised Piper Fatigue Scale developed by Piper et al. (1998) and translated by the investigators and self-efficacy was measured using the 10-item General self-efficacy Questionnaire developed by Lee. Schwarzer & Jerusalem. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 program using frequency percentage mean and standard deviation t-test ANOVA post-hoc test (Scheffe's test) and Pearson Correlation Coefficients.
RESULT
1) The mean fatigue score was 118+/-33.02 (range:22~220) The scores for sub-dimension were 35.40+/-10.06 in behavior/severity 25.98+/-9.06 in affective score 27.88+/-10.06 in sensory score and 29.22+/-8.27 in cognitive/mood The mean self-efficacy score was 28.80+/-5.82 2) There were significant differences in the fatigue of patients with lung cancer on income per month (F=4.651 p=.014) 'present pain' (F=2.601 p=.012) 'change of weight' (F=5.911 p=.005) by general characteristics 3) There were significant differences in the self-efficacy of patients with lung cancer on 'religion'(F=3.732 p=.031) 'past therapy'(F=2.869 p=0.34) by general characteristics 4) There was a significant negative correlation between fatigue and self-efficacy (r=-.528 p=.000).
CONCLUSION
Patients with lung cancer experience fatigue. Increased fatigue is associated with decreased self-efficacy. Nurses must provide patients with nursing care for the less occurrence of fatigue and interventions to manage self-efficacy for them.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Breast Self-Examination of Middle-aged Women in Korea
Hee Jung Jang, Jeong Sook Park, Yun Jung Oh, Young Hee Choi, Eun A Park, Choo Ja Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):719-731.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge attitude and practice of middle-aged women berast self-examination and to develop a breast self-examination promotion program for them.
METHOD
the subjects of the study were 365 middle-aged women in Seoul Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gueongbok, Gyeongnam, Jeonbuk Gangwon and Kyonggi. The instruments used in this study included knowledge(16items) attitude (22item)by Chol (1996) and practice (1item) The data were collected from September 15 to October 31 2001 by using self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Pearson correlation coefficient chi2 test t-test ANOVA and Scheffe test with SPSS program.
RESULT
1) 78.4% of the subjects were educated for breast self-examination. The most common source of knowledge for the breast self-examination was mess media 2) The average score of knowledge on breast self-examination was 8.52 points. The average score of attitude toward breast self-examination was 3.08 points 58.3% of the subjects practiced breast self-examination. But only 9.4% of the subjects practiced breast self-examination with a monthly basis 3) Knowledge on breast self-examination was correlated with demographic variables including residence (F+2.923 p=0.004) education (F+5.145 p=0.000) number of children (F=5.125 p=0.002) and menopause (t=-2.330 p=0.020) Attitude toward breast self-examination was correlated with demographic variables including residence (F+3.611 p=0.000) age (F=2.731 p=0.029) education (F=4.480 p=0.004) and family income (f=5.963 p=0.003) Practice of breast self-examination was correlated with demographic variables including residence (chi2=51.342 p=0.000) education (chi2=19.896 p=0.000) and menopause (chi2=9.841 p=0.000) 4) In terms of correlations among the scores of breast self-examination related knowledge attitude and practice there was a correlation between knowledge and attitude. But there was no correlations between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice of breast self-examination.
CONCLUSION
This study suggests that programs about the practice of breast self-examination need to be developed in the future.
The Drinking Experience of Full-time Middle-aged House Wives
Jee Mee Kim, Jueng Ae Lee, Seong Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):732-742.   Published online December 31, 2002
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There are few research on the social drinking experience reported by women. Thus it is necessary to understand the increasing tendency of womens drinking experience in the sociocultural context. This study was aimed to explore and delineate the drinking experience of full-time house wives base don strauss and Corbin's grounded theory (1998). The subjects of this study were 10 full-time middle-aged house wives sho were living in Seoul region. The data were collected through several in-depth interviews and observations until the theoretical saturation was achieved. The data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. The results of this study generated a paradigm the drinking experience of the full-time middle-aged house wives has a core category of 'free-oneself-from' and is also connected with mingling anguish accessibility reaction of other people change personal resources self-expression and building relationships by drinking. All processes from the occurrence of the central phenomenon to extinction are as follows: 1) Starting the process of the drinking experience for mingling and resolving anguish and by having an easy accessibility 2) Perceiving the process of reaction by other people physical change of herself and psycho-behavioral change 3) Experiencing the process of free-oneself-from thorough drinking 4) Acknowledging the process of the resources for free-oneself-from 5) Selecting the process of self-expression according to the resources 6) Building the process of the relationship with drinking as a way of self-expression Based on this paradigm 4 hypothesis and 4 types are generated Thus this study suggests that it is useful to develop nursing interventions to improve the self-esteem of the full-time middle-aged house wives and to provide them various methods of problem solving strategies. This study also proposes that there should be a strategic program for the women so that they could make a route for positive self-expression by achieving a proper relationship with drinking.
A Comparative Study of Health State and School Adaptation between Children in Divorced Family and in Normal Family
Eun Sun Ji, Kyoul Ja Cho
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):743-756.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
This study is a descriptive and comparative study that compares health state and school adaptation between children in divorced family and in normal family. Study results will provide a basic data for the development of an intervention program designed to help children in divorced family adjust to their crisis.
METHOD
The study subjects consisted of 700 children in 4th 5th or 6th elementary school grade residing Seoul and Kyunggi regions Among these subjects 123 were children with divorced family and 577 were children with normal family. The health status of the subjects was measured by health Symptom Questionnaire developed by Shin and revised by the investigators. The instrument consisted of 30 items measuring physical and emotional health symptoms. The level of school adaptation scale developed by Lee which consisted of 4 dimensions with 20 items what measures relationship with peer students learning activity observance of regulation and participation of school activity. The investigators visited the schools and collected data in the classes using the questionnaire after explaining the purpose and procedures of the study to the children The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics Yo2-test t-test ANOVA using the SPSS PC+ statistical program.
RESULT
First the mean health state score in children with normal family (M=11.99) was higher than that in children with divorced family (M=19.15) showing a significant difference (t=-6.51 p=.000) between the two groups which suggests that children with normal family have better health state than children with divorced family. Second the mean school adaptation score in children with normal family (M=39.99) was higher than that in children with divorced family (M=26.97) showing a significant difference between the two groups (t=104.07 p=.000) which suggests that the school adaptation of children with normal family is better than that of children with divorced family Third in comparison of health state between the two groups by general characteristics there were significant differences between the two groups in sex the most contributing factor to health status of the children school year birth order religion school achievement amount of monthly pocket money parents level of formal education occupation of parents economic status (p<.05) Forth in comparison of the level of school adaptation between the two groups by general characteristics there were significant differences between the two groups in most varibales (p<0.05) suggesting that children with normal family had better capacity of school adaptation than children with divorced family.
CONCLUSION
As a result this study showed that the parent's divorce had great influence on children's health status and school adaptation capacity. The implication for nursing is that there is a need to develop supportive interventions for the high-risk children who have decreased health states and school adaptation capacity due to the divorce of their parents. In addition it is recommended that further studies should be conducted to explore protective factors for the prevention of health and adaptation problems in children.
A Study on the Projected Workforce for Public Health Nurses in Korea
Pok Ja Oh, Suk Jung Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):757-766.   Published online December 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
Recently there have been many changes in health care environments in Korea To perform public health programs effectively and efficiently it is necessary to analyze and identify th demand and supply for the public health nurses.
METHOD
The study analyzed experts' opinions regarding the supply of public health nurses as well as national and foreign statistical data on workforce supply of public health nurses. Two methods for estimating the amount of demand for public health nurses were used: one was applying the indicator of developed countries for public health nurses based on population: the other was to refer to regulations and/or recommended guidelines in Korea.
RESULT
1) The number of public health centers public health sub-center and primary health care posts have decreased between 1990 and 2001 from 260 to 242 1318 to 1270 2038 to 1907 respectively 2) Between 1997 and 2002 the number of public health nurses has also decreased from 5572 to 5112 3) In the case of applying regulations the number (5112) of existing public health nurses falls shortly by 942 4) In 2001 the Korean population per one public health nurse was 9262 5) In case of applying regulations the number of public health nurses required to meet the demand for health services in 2001 and 2020 is estimated at 5932 and 6347 respectively 6) In the case of applying the indicators of developed countries the number of public health nurses required to meet the demand for health service in 2001 and 2020 is estimated at 9.469 and 10.310 respectively.
CONCLUSION
AND SUGGESTIONS: Because of the importance of public health industry public health nurses have been approved as a field specialist and specialized nurse practitioner by the newly revised legal regulation there have been absence of approval of their role differentiation and capability. In addition organizational activity and insufficient number of the public health nurses have contributed to of the public health nurses have contributed to the inactive utilization of them As community public health is focused on caring individuals as well as organizations ot requires more autonomy and special skills than other fields. Therefore public health nurses need to enhance the capability as health educator consultant and information management persons through advanced education course for public health nurses. Public health nurses need to be prepared as advanced nurse practitioners by receiving advanced education courses and field experiences.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing