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Original Articles
Bidirectional Relationship Between Depression and Frailty in Older Adults aged 70-84 years using Random Intercepts Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis
Ji Hye Shin, Gyeong A Kang, Sun Young Kim, Won Chang Won, Ju Young Yoon
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2024;35(1):1-9.   Published online February 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00381
Funded: Seoul National University, National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Education
  • 891 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Depression and frailty are common health problems that occur separately or simultaneously in later life. The two syndromes are correlated, but they need to be distinguished to promote successful aging. Previous studies have examined the reciprocal relationship between depression and frailty, but there are limitations in the methods or statistical analysis. This study aims to confirm the potential prospective bidirectional and causal relationship between depression and frailty.
Methods
We used data from 887 older adults aged 70 to 84 from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS) in 2016, 2018, and 2020 (3 waves). We separated the within-individual process from the stable between-individual differences using the random intercepts cross-lagged panel model.
Results
Significant bidirectional causal effects were observed in 2 paths. Older adults with higher depression than their within-person average at T1 had a higher risk of frailty at T2 (β=.22, p=.008). Subsequently, older adults with higher-than-average frailty scores at T2 showed higher depression at T3 (β=.14, p=.010). Autoregressive effects were only significant from T2 to T3 for both constructs (Depression: β=.16, p=.044; Frailty: β=.13, p=.028). At the between-person level, the correlation was significant between the random intercepts between depression and frailty (β=.47, p<.001).
Conclusions
We find that depressed older adults have an increased risk of frailty, which contributes to the onset of depression and the maintenance of frailty. Therefore, interventions for each condition may prevent the entry and worsening of the other condition, as well as prevent comorbidity.
Current Status and Associated Factors of Emotional Distress Due to COVID-19 Among People with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community: Secondary Data Analysis using the 2020 National Survey of Disabled Persons
Bohye Kim, Ju Young Yoon
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2024;35(1):37-50.   Published online February 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00374
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Education, Center for Human-Caring Nurse Leaders for the Future
  • 749 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to assess the current situation and factors associated with emotional distress due to COVID-19 among people with physical disabilities living in the community, using a Social-Ecological Model.
Methods
A secondary data analysis was performed using data from the 2020 National Survey of Disabled Persons. The study participants were 1,654 participants aged 19 years or older with physical disabilities. For data analysis, complex sample logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with emotional distress due to COVID-19 in people with physical disabilities.
Results
The results showed that 55.7% of people with physical disabilities living in the community experienced emotional distress due to COVID-19. This emotional distress was influenced by various factors, including intrapersonal factors (activities of daily living, difficulty in getting information about COVID-19, difficulty in obtaining and using equipment related to COVID-19), interpersonal factors (satisfaction with the number of friends), and community/policy factor (support related to COVID-19 from national and local governments).
Conclusion
It is recommended to develop tailored interventions to prevent mental health issues among people with physical disabilities by considering the factors related to their emotional distress in the event of future infectious disease disasters.
Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Diabetes Acceptance and Action Scale (DAAS-K)
Kawoun Seo
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2024;35(1):76-83.   Published online March 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00430
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Education
  • 512 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Diabetes Acceptance and Action Scale-Revised (DAAS-R) for Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
The survey was conducted from September 1, 2021, to September 30, 2021, through a survey institution for patients diagnosed with diabetes who understood the purpose of the study and voluntarily agreed to participate. A total of 231 individuals with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. After performing forward and backward translations of the original version of the Diabetes Acceptance and Action Scale-Revised (DAAS-R) into Korean, its constructive validity (confirmatory factor analysis), concurrent validity and reliability were assessed. Concurrent validity was confirmed through the correlation between acceptance and action, quality of life, diabetes self-stigma, and experiential avoidance.
Results
Construct validity, measured using confirmatory factor analysis, showed a good fit. The DAAS-K was positively correlated with acceptance and action, quality of life, and negatively correlated with diabetes self-stigma and experiential avoidance. As for internal reliability, the Cronbach’s α of the DAAS-K was .95.
Conclusion
The DAAS-K can be applied to assess diabetes acceptance and action in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes and to compare the levels of psychological flexibility of patients with diabetes internationally.
Home-based walking intervention for middle-aged migrant women using 360-degree virtual videos and a wearable activity tracker: A mixed-methods pilot study
Duckhee Chae, Keiko Asami, Jaseon Kim, Kukhyeon Kim, Jeeheon Ryu, Ardith Z. Doorenbos
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2024;35(1):10-21.   Published online March 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00339
Funded: Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea, National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 844 View
  • 8 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
To sustain behavior change, an intervention strategy that considers the contribution of affect to daily physical activity behavior regulation is needed. Although virtual reality-based physical activity interventions have the potential to improve emotional status, interventions using virtual reality videos in a free-living environment are lacking. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a home-based intervention using 360-degree virtual videos and wearable activity trackers to improve mood and physical activity.
Methods
A one-group pilot study of 12 middle-aged migrant women asked participants to watch virtual reality videos and perform moderate-intensity walking 5 days per week for 4 weeks, then complete surveys and focus group interviews. The intervention’s feasibility and preliminary efficacy were assessed by examining recruitment, retention, adherence, acceptability, mood, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy.
Results
A word-of-mouth approach was effective for recruiting participants. Although the weekly intervention adherence rate ranged from 53.5% to 83.5%, retention (92.3%) and acceptability (91.7%) were high. Participants were satisfied with the “visual status indicators,” “sense of accomplishment and confidence,” “emotional engagement and sense of presence,” “joy from exercise,” “external motivation through supervision,” “easy to control virtual reality device,” and “extra benefits” of the intervention. Participants had significant decreases in negative affect (p=.016). Positive affect, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy showed trends toward improvement.
Conclusion
This home-based intervention employing virtual reality videos and Fitbit activity trackers is feasible and shows preliminary efficacy in improving mood. Further research is warranted to evaluate its effectiveness in a more rigorous randomized controlled trial.
Smartphone dependency latent profile classification and association with emotional and behavioral difficulties among high school students in Korea
Eunjoo Kim, Min Kyung Song
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2024;35(1):84-98.   Published online March 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2024.00465
Funded: Jeju National University
  • 602 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The pervasive integration of smartphones into adolescents’ daily lives has resulted in a concerning upsurge in smartphone dependency among high school students. Due to the diverse types and severity levels of smartphone dependency, there is a critical need for research to explore its heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify latent profile of smartphone dependency in high school students based on the four subdomains of smartphone dependency: disturbance of adaptive functions, virtual life orientation, withdrawal, and tolerance. In addition, we explored how emotional and behavioral difficulties differ according to the profiles.
Methods
We used data from 2,195 Korean high school students from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey 2018. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify smartphone dependency latent profile. Statistical analysis including chi-square test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and ranked Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) confirmed differences in smartphone use characteristics and emotional-behavioral difficulties according to the classified latent profile.
Results
LPA identified four distinct latent profiles of smartphone dependency among high school students; 1) Underdependent type, 2) Moderate type, 3) Habitual user type, and 4) Virtual space dependent type. The results of ranked ANCOVA, controlling for gender, geographical location, economic status, parental smartphone dependency, and relational variables, revealed that habitual user type exhibited significantly higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, social withdrawal, and depressive symptoms compared to other types.
Conclusion
The identification of these profiles provides a foundation for developing tailored intervention programs for adolescents with different levels and patterns of smartphone dependency.
A Multi-component Living Lab on Health Engagement for Advancing Self-care Agency among Migrant Workers in South Korea: A mixed methods study
Youlim Kim, Hyeonkyeong Lee, Sookyung Kim, Junghee Kim
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(4):281-293.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00199
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea, College of Nursing, Yonsei University
  • 1,005 View
  • 28 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Migrant workers battle to access health services and adapt to a new culture. Self-care agency can be essential for health self-management. This study examines the effects of a health engagement program to improve self-care agency using a living lab approach among migrant workers living in South Korea.
Methods
This study used a mixed-methods design, including a non-equivalent pre-post-test control group and three focus group interviews. Participants included 42 migrant workers from nine countries recruited via flyers, posters, and internet bulletins posted by a migrant community organization. During the 12 weeks, only the intervention group participants received four workshops addressing healthy physical activity, healthy dietary habits, effective cultural adaptation, stress management, and two outdoor cultural activities. They also participated in focus group interviews after the second, third, and fourth group activities and discussed the benefits of healthy behaviors and specific ways to implement them in real life.
Results
Participants in the intervention group showed an increase in self-care agency, health literacy, and acculturation after the 12- week intervention. Themes were derived based on the lessons from living lab activities, barriers to health behavior practices, and methods to overcome these.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that multi-component intervention using a living lab effectively increased migrants’ participation in health promotion activities by strengthening health in their self-care agency. The qualitative and living lab approach effectively obtained comprehensive results on strategies to enhance healthy behavior engagement.
Factors affecting cultural adaptation stress by gender among multicultural adolescents in Korea
Seungwoo Han
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(4):320-331.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00276
Funded: Kwangju Women`s University
  • 814 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This paper is a descriptive survey research to identify factors that affect acculturation stress in multicultural adolescents, and provide basic information that can be used to develop ways to improve their mental health.
Methods
This study used the data of the 2nd multicultural adolescents panel study provided on December 30, 2022 by the National Youth Policy Institute. The subjects of this study were 1,520 multicultural adolescents in the fourth grade of elementary school and the survey period was from July to November 2020. The dependent variable was acculturation stress, and the explanatory variables were as follows: mother’s and father’s country of origin, region size, home economic conditions, academic achievement, experience of discrimination, mother’s level of education, father’s level of education, and number of close friends. Data analysis involved calculation of descriptive statistics, analysis of differences in the level of acculturative stress and general characteristics between male and female adolescents, and multiple regression analysis.
Results
This study found that there are gender differences in significant influencing factors for acculturation stress among multicultural adolescents. For males, factors influencing acculturation stress were identified as regional size, mother's education level, parental support, and teacher support. For females, they were regional size, experience of discrimination, number of close friends, parental support, and self-esteem.
Conclusion
The results of this study suggest that psychiatric nurses should provide psychiatric nursing and counseling to multicultural adolescents in addition to clinical psychiatric nursing. Various mental health programs should be developed for multicultural adolescents, with a focus on counseling, education, and family therapy.
Factors Related to Smoking Relapse Within Six-Months of Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients
Ji Eun Bae, Chul-Woung Kim, Seung Eun Lee, Myungwha Jang
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(4):307-319.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00213
Funded: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Chungnam National University
  • 923 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with smoking relapse within 6 months after quit attempts among inpatients of a university hospital.
Methods
The subjects of this study were 572 inpatients of the National University Hospitals in Daejeon & Sejong who had enrolled in the smoking cessation service provided by the Daejeon·Sejong Tobacco Control Center and attempted to quit smoking. The data used in the study were extracted from the Smoking Cessation Service Integrated Information System. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox Proportional hazards model were used to identify variables associated with smoking relapse within 6 months.
Results
The smoking relapse rate within 6 months was 76.7%, and variables associated with relapse included the absence of supporters for quitting smoking (hazard ratio [HR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.02), nicotine dependence (HR=1.09, 95% CI=1.03-1.15), the use of prescription medications (including varenicline or bupropion) (HR=3.99, 95% CI=1.83-8.71), and the number of consultations (HR=0.67, 95% CI= 0.63-0.70).
Conclusion
As a result of the study, the number of consultations showed the strongest correlation with abstinence within 6 months. This implies that it is necessary to increase the counseling participation rate of the subjects so that smoking cessation counseling can be continued after discharge, and it is also required to provide support education to guardians during hospitalization for effective smoking relapse prevention.
Gender Differences in Older Adults’ Muscle Strength and Depressive Symptoms: A Relationship Mediated Through Perceived Stress
Gyeong A Kang, Jihye Shin, Ju Young Yoon
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(3):196-204.   Published online September 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00164
Funded: Seoul National University, Ministry of Education, National Research Foundation of Korea, Center for Human-Caring Nurse Leaders for the Future
  • 1,095 View
  • 46 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Preventing the effects of physical vulnerability is a practical approach to improving older adults’ depressive symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between gender differences related to muscle strength and depressive symptoms mediated by perceived stress.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, data from 2,705 older adults (65 years old or older) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VII 2016 and 2018 were analyzed. The moderated mediation model was developed; the outcome, independent, mediation, and moderated mediation variables in the literature-based research model were depressive symptoms, muscle strength, perceived stress, and gender, respectively.
Results
Perceived stress had a mediating effect on the relationship between muscle strength and depressive symptoms. The indirect effect of muscle strength on depressive symptoms mediated by perceived stress was β = -.02 (95% CI:-0.03~-0.01). The moderated mediation model demonstrated that the interaction term of handgrip strength and gender negatively affected perceived stress, which indicated that gender moderated the mediating model of perceived stress on the association of muscle strength and depressive symptoms (β = -.01, p <.05). The conditional indirect effect model was insignificant in the male group (β = -.00, 95% CI:-0.01~0.01) but significant in the female group (β = -.01, 95% CI: -0.02~0.00). Conclusions: Perceived stress mediated the relationship between muscle strength and depressive symptoms. However, the effect differed by gender. A stress-mediated depressive symptoms intervention program for older adults should be developed to consider women’s needs.
Effects of Fatigue and Emotional Labor on Sleep Quality among Apartment Security Guards
Chul-Gyu Kim, Sujeong Jeong, Young Mi Ryu, Seungmi Park, Kyoungmi Moon, Yunjung Kwon, Sun-A Park, Hye Ok Park
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(3):205-216.   Published online September 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00220
Funded: Chungbuk National University
  • 1,227 View
  • 55 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to identify the effects of fatigue and emotional labor on the quality of sleep among apartment security guards.
Methods
A total of 196 apartment security guards working in 10 different regions participated in the study between July and October 2022, completing questionnaire assessing fatigue (physical imbalance, exhaustion, mental fatigue, and nervous system disfunction), emotional labor, and sleep quality. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, ANOVA including Scheffe’s post hoc, and regression analysis.
Results
183(93.4%) participants were poor sleeper. Regression analysis of the factors influencing sleep quality yielded a significant model (F= 21.56, p<.001) with an explanatory power of 25.0% in the order of fatigue(exhaustion) (β=.28, p<.001), emotional labor (β=.27, p<.001), and subjective economic status (β=.15, p=.017).
Conclusion
It is essential to develop nursing educational programs that reduce exhaustion and emotional labor for improving the quality of sleep.
The Effect of Dual Sensory Impairment on Cognitive Function Decline in the Elderly: The Moderating Effect of Social Support
Soo Jee Yang, Ju Young Yoon
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(3):217-227.   Published online September 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00255
Funded: Seoul Nurses Association, National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Education
  • 1,321 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study verified that the dual sensory impairment (DSI) in the elderly is associated with cognitive impairment (CI) and confirmed how change in cognitive function varies depending on the social support (SS).
Methods
For a study sample of Korean older people, data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA) from the 7th (2018) to the 8th (2020), were included in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Among people who responded in both 2018 and 2020, a total of 2,069 people of those who are 65 years of age or older, and have living children and normal cognitive function, were analyzed. X2 -test, t-test and logistic regression analyses were utilized.
Results
First, the number of elderly with visual impairment (VI), hearing impairment, and DSI increased on 8th data compared with 7th data. In addition, 22.9% of the 2,069 people showed a decrease in cognitive function. Second, compared to the elderly with normal sensory function, the cognitive function of the elderly with only VI was found to be more degraded, and the cognitive function of the elderly with DSI was found to be much more degraded. In addition, among SS, only participation in social gatherings was found to show significant change in cognitive function of the elderly with DSI. Third, the interaction effect of participating in social gatherings was not significant in the CI of the elderly with DSI.
Conclusion
VI and DSI effected cognitive function, but participation in social gatherings such as SS has not significant interaction effect on CI of the elderly with DSI.
A Study on Outcomes of the Utilization of Visiting Nursing Service at the Integrated Visiting Nursing Center in Bucheon-si
Hyun-Kyung Park, Ae Jung Yoo, Ju Young Yoon, Jae Woo Choi
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(2):127-134.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00045
Funded: Ministry of Health and Welfare
  • 1,439 View
  • 60 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The government has implemented a pilot project for community care for older adults and the integrated visiting nursing center in Bucheon-si operated by public fund of government to provide visiting nursing service for older adults. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of the utilization of visiting nursing service at the integrated visiting nursing center in Bucheon-si.
Methods
This study linked the personal data from the pilot project for community care with the National Health Insurance data. The final subjects comprised 30 participants and 110 of the matched control group. The length of home stay, hospitalization, and the admission for long-term care facilities or convalescent hospitals were measured. Statistical analysis was performed through difference-in-differences analysis using generalized estimating equation and Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
The results indicated an increase of 28.2 days for length of home stay and a reduction of 69% in hospitalization from medical institutions and 81% in admission of long-term care facilities or convalescent hospitals among participants compared to the control group.
Conclusion
The visiting nursing service of the integrated visiting nursing center was effective in extending length of home stay and lowering the hospitalization of medical institutions and admission of long-term care facilities or convalescent hospitals.
What Determines the Health-related Quality of Life of Vietnamese Migrant Workers in Korea?
Jihyon Pahn, Heesuk Kim, Youngran Yang
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(2):147-157.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2023.00066
Funded: Ministry of Education, National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 690 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Over time, the number of migrant workers in Korea has shown a steady increase. Notably, among all migrant workers, those from Vietnam constitute the third largest group in Korea. The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the health-related quality of life of Vietnamese migrant workers. The study aimed to provide essential data for the development of customized nursing intervention programs and policy preparation in the future.
Methods
A total of 220 Vietnamese migrant workers aged between 18 and 64, who were employed in Korea through the Employment Permit System and had been residing in the country for more than 91 days, participated in this study.
Results
The study results revealed that physical activity (β=.19, p=.002), hope (β=.50, p <. 001), cohabitation with colleagues (β=.16, p =.003), and sleep hour (β=.11, p =. 031) had a statistically significant impact on health-related quality of life. The findings showed that higher levels of physical activity and hope were positively associated with higher health-related quality of life. Moreover, cohabiting with colleagues and sleeping for more than six hours were also significantly related to higher health-related quality of life.
Conclusion
Given these findings, it is imperative to develop programs that encourage physical activity and enhance the health-related quality of life of migrant workers from Vietnam. Policymakers and employers should also consider providing adequate living conditions that facilitate cohabitation with colleagues and sufficient time for sleep to improve the health and well-being of migrant workers.
The Burden Experience of Family Caregiver of Older Adults with Chronic Illness
Nova Yustisia, Titin Aprilatutini, Tuti Anggriani Utama, Mahmasoni Masdar
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(2):85-95.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2022.00304
Funded: Bengkulu University
  • 3,119 View
  • 210 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aims to find out further about the burden on families in undertaking caregiving for the elderly with chronic illnesses.
Methods
A qualitative study was developed using in-depth interviews with 12 family caregivers selected by purposive sampling in July 2022. The thematic analysis was then carried out using the Colaizzi method, and N-Vivo 12 Qualitative Data Analysis Software was used to assist with the content analysis.
Results
The result from the experience interview analysis of caregivers participating in this study were 54 codes which were categorized into thirteen categories. Then, they were derived into four themes, as follows: 1) Physical burden of the caregivers for the elderly with chronic illness, 2) Psychological burden of the caregivers for the elderly with chronic illness, 3) Obstacle of caregivers for the elderly with chronic illness, 4) The state of caregivers who perform caregiving for the elderly with chronic illness.
Conclusion
The experience of caregivers in undertaking caregiving for the elderly with chronic disease has many obstacles, such as physical, psychological, and economic burdens. Caregivers often find positive aspects of their experiences while caregiving for the elderly, although their burden also constantly increases. Health facilities should pay serious attention to family caregivers and facilitate programs that can help reduce the burden on family caregivers.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship between Care Burden and Health Anxiety in the Family Caregivers of the Older Adults with Alzheimer’s Disease
    Mohammad Sadegh Sargolzaei, Daniyal Kohestani, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin Khoshnazar, Hossein Asghari Asl
    Ageing International.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Needs assessment of community health practitioners for community care competency of older adults
Na Bee Yoon, Hyeon Kyeong Lee, Haesun Lee, Sang Woo Park
Res Community Public Health Nurs. 2023;34(1):32-42.   Published online March 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/rcphn.2022.00360
Funded: College of Nursing at Yonsei University
  • 1,604 View
  • 75 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
To identify needs and priorities of community care competency for older adults among community health practitioners. Methods: Data were collected from a convenient sample of 326 community health practitioners using an online questionnaire, which included items on community care competencies and personal characteristics. Items were developed through literature review, consultation meeting, content validity verification, and preliminary investigation. The data were analyzed using the t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Scheffe’s test with SPSS 25.0. The analysis of needs and priorities was conducted by using the Borich needs assessment and the Locus for focus model. Results: Three competencies have been identified as high-priority needs; ‘Linkages with resources’, ‘Education to others’, ‘Leadership and management’. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the need to develop an educational program for community health practitioners to strengthen community care competencies. The programs will need to be provided, especially for young community health practitioners, to ensure that they are well equipped to care for community-dwelling older adults living in rural areas.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing