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Volume 18 (2); June 2007
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Original Articles
The Effect of an Obesity Control Program on Body Composition and Blood Lipid Level among Middle-aged Obese Women in a Health Center
Jeoung Ha Sim, Dae Gyu Go, Young Ju Yoo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):201-210.   Published online June 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
The Purpose of this study was to examine an obesity control program using dietary consult and physical exercise among middle-aged obese women in a health center.
METHOD
This study used a pretest-posttest design. The subjects were 63 middle-aged women with over BMI 25(Kg/m2) or %BF 28 who participated in the obesity control program for 12 weeks.
RESULTS
After the program for 12 weeks, BMI(p= .02) and TC(p= .00) decreased significantly compared with those before the program.
CONCLUSION
Obesity control programs in health centers can decrease the degree of obesity in middle-aged obese women. Therefore health centers should develop strategies for their members' continuous participation in such an obesity control program.
Relations among Health Behaviors, Health Symptoms and Physical Fitness of People in the Same Community
Sun Hyoung Bae
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):211-222.   Published online June 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to identify relations among health behaviors, health symptoms and physical fitness of people in the same community.
METHOD
The study was designed as a descriptive survey and the participants were 1,621 healthy people. Data were collected from March to December, 2003 using a structured questionnaire on health behaviors, health symptoms and physical fitness. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi2-test, t-test, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression using SPSS/PC.
RESULTS
The result of multiple regression showed that sex, age, and BMI were related to physical fitness. In health-related physical fitness, regular exercise was related to cardiorespiratory endurance and flexibility, and daily caffeine intake was related to muscular endurance. In performance-related physical fitness, having breakfast regularly was related to power, daily caffeine intake was related to agility, and regular lifestyle and health symptoms were related to balance.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this study suggests that for better physical fitness, nursing strategies and intervention programs should include physical fitness-related factors, and education programs should be developed based on the above parameters to promote positive perception of physical fitness.
A Study on Depression, Sleep and Fatigue in Younger and Older Elders
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):223-231.   Published online June 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was to compare differences in and correlation among depression, sleep and fatigue between younger and older elders.
METHOD
A total of 370 subjects aged between 65 and 88 were selected through convenient sampling. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from March to December, 2005.
RESULTS
Younger elders showed lower levels of depression and fatigue than older ones. The level of sleep satisfaction was higher in older elders than in younger ones. In both groups, fatigue was positively correlated to depression, and depression and fatigue were negatively correlated to sleep satisfaction. In addition, fatigue was affected by depression, the number of persons in household and sleep satisfaction.
CONCLUSION
Older elders showed more serious health problems than younger ones. It is necessary to develop comprehensive intervention programs in order to promote healthy lifestyle for older elders.
Factors Influencing Dementia Caregivers' Health-related Quality of Life
Jung Soon Kim, Myoung Soo Kim, Soo Ok Kim, Youn Ja Yoo, Dae Young Won
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):232-241.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to explore the health-related quality of life of caregivers for demented elders.
METHOD
The subjects of this study were 170 pairs of demented elders and their caregivers. Socio-demographic characteristics of the demented elders and the caregivers, Barthel index and SF-36 were used in this study. Data analysis procedure included t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and hierarchical multiple regression.
RESULTS
The score of overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was 288.62 in norm-based scoring. The major factors that affect HRQoL of the demented elders' caregivers were burden, the age of the caregiver, ADL and gender of the demented elder, and these factors explained 34.5% of HRQoL.
CONCLUSION
The factors significantly affecting the caregivers' HRQoL were burden, the age of the caregiver and ADL. The effective social support system should be considered in respective nursing interventions to decrease the level of burden and to increase HRQoL in demented elders' caregivers. Further studies and efforts will be needed to investigate preceding factors of burden and HRQoL.
The Effect of Oriental Self-help Group Program for the Living Alone-Aged Inhabiting Rural Region
Myoung Ja Wang, Shin Ae Park, Tae Ok Myung, Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):242-251.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Oriental self-help group program on living-alone elders in rural areas.
METHOD
A one-group pretest-post test design was used. The subjects of the experimental group participated in the oriental self-help program, health education, feet bathing in hot water, cupping therapy, and foot-reflexology. The obtained data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Pearson correlation coefficients of SPSS.
RESULTS
1) The level of blood triglyceride, SGOT and glucose decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. 2) The scores of depression and stress decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. 3) The score of Yangsaeng increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. 4) Depression was higher when the score of stress was high, and the score of depression and stress were lower when the score of Yangsaeng was high.
CONCLUSION
Considering the results of this research, the program is effective in improving physiological indexes partially, emotional indexes and Yangsaeng. Therefore this program can be implemented as a community-based self-help group program for living-alone elders in rural areas.
A Study on Activities of Daily Living and Perceived Health Status of Disabled Persons at Home in Rural Areas
Hyeon Ok Kim, Kyoung Hwa Joung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):252-265.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was attempted to provide basic data required to develop community-base rehabilitation program for disabled persons at home by investigating their characteristics, ADL, and perceived health status.
METHOD
The subjects were 146 disabled persons at home in rural areas. Data were collected from January 22 to January 31, 2004. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, chi2-test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, Contingency coefficient, Pearson's correlation, Stepwise multiple regression.
RESULTS
The average score of ADL was 5.51+/-1.92: sphincter control (5.85+/-2.10), communication (5.66+/-2.02), transfers (5.67+/-2.21), self care (5.44+/-2.05), social cognition (5.33+/-2.08), and locomotion (4.85+/-2.32). This means that the respondents were in the state of dependence. The main items requiring others' help were 'bathing' (57.7%) and 'going up and down stairs' (51.1%). ADL was significantly different according to age, gender, occupation, medical fee payer, type, severity and duration of disability, BMI, and alcohol drinking. Among the respondents, 82.8% perceived that their health status was bad. Main factors influencing the perceived health status of disability were age and ADL(R2=.343).
CONCLUSION
Perception of health status among the disabled is related to their characteristics and ADL, so it is necessary to develop community-base rehabilitation programs in order to improve ADL and the perception of health status.
Evaluation of Community Health Center for Vulnerable Population in Urban Areas
Kyung Min Park, Chung Nam Kim, Hyo Jung Koh, Yeong Sook Park, Jung Sook Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):266-275.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to evaluate achievements of a community health center for vulnerable population in urban areas and to find out its strength and weakness.
METHOD
This evaluative study employed system theories and analytic techniques.
RESULTS
The purpose of improving vulnerable population's health-related self-care abilities adequately met the operation of programs. This center maintained close connection to a nursing college as a information resource. The subjects' satisfaction was high because team members who visited them were faithful and there were face-to-face contact, sufficient time set, closeness and resourcefulness. There were needs for regular meetings to discuss overall matters in organizing the program and to improve management skills. The mean score of health promotion lifestyle was 2.23 on a 4 point scale. This score indicates what in higher than vulnerable people in other communities.
CONCLUSIONS
Community-based nursing centers for vulnerable population in urban areas should be developed as support organizations and community network.
A Study on the Effects of the Reduction of Working Hours on Female Workers' Fatigue
Bok Im Lee, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):276-283.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This present study has been conducted on female workers' shorter working hours in order to look into their fatigue level and the correlation between fatigue and working hours.
METHOD
We surveyed 237 respondents using a questionnaire from June 1st to June 20th, 2005.
RESULTS
The means of total fatigue complaint was 3.45. The fatigue level was significantly higher in the lower age group, unmarried group, manager group and shorter working duration group. And the fatigue level was significantly correlated to working hours and work intensity. In the results of stepwise multiple regression, factors affecting the fatigue level were the change of work intensity, age, regular diet habit, working hours and the type of occupation.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to prepare the health promotion programs, which can reduce female workers' fatigue level and relieve the intensity of their works.
Workers' Experiences in Shift Work
Young Hea Kim, Young Mi Kim, So Hee Kim, Koung Oh Chang, Mi Jee Koo, Nea Young Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):284-292.   Published online June 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to explore and understanding the nature of the shift workers' experience in industries requiring 24 hours-a-day service provision and support. For the purpose, the present researcher made a research question, "What are workers' experience in the shift work?" METHODS: In the study, 5 male shift workers, 3 female shift worker and a woman (key informant) whose husband is a shift worker participated. Then profound interviews with the participants were made after their agreement.
RESULTS
The researcher classified the significant statements under 6 theme clusters, 1) sense of difference; 2) worries about health; 3) draining of emotion; 4) anxiety; 5) sadness; and 6) being comfortable.
CONCLUSIONS
Shift work which is inevitable in modern society may have severe influences on shift workers' physical, mental and psychological aspects by causing their work cycle rhythm to be unbalanced. Finally, the researcher hopes that the results of the study would help understand workers' life and increase social concern and support to the workers.
The Effects of Exercise.Behavior Modification Therapy on the Obesity Control and Self-esteem of the Obese Female College Students
Chung Nam Kim, Yun Hee Kwon, Kyung Min Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):293-300.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To examine the effect of the exercise.behavior modification therapy one the obesity control and self-esteem of the obese female college students.
METHOD
Data was collected from March 10, 2006 to June 10, 2006. The research design was adopted randomized control group (EG=exercise group) pretest-posttest experimental (E . BG=exercise . behavior modification therapy group) design. The subjects were nursing students at T college. A total of 37 obese female college students(BMI: over 27mg/m2) were selected for this research. The exercise program was executed for 12 weeks and 4 days a week, and the behavior modification was therapy performed for 12 weeks and 60 minutes per week. The data were analyzed with the SPSS Win 12.0 program through the Mann-Whitney test.
RESULT
BMI(Z=-3.049, p=.002) of the E . BG was significantly different from the EG. The Total Cholesterol(Z=-1.162, p=.250) of the E . BG was not significantly different from the EG. The self-esteem(Z=-3.196, p=.001) of the E.BG was significantly different from the EG.
CONCLUSION
The exercise . behavior modification therapy was more effective than the exercise therapy in improving the obesity and self-esteem of the obese female college students.
The State of College Freshmen's Smoking and the Application of Cessation Programs
Gui Yun Choi, Kyung Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):301-309.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Based on the results of a survey on college freshmen's smoking, this study examined the application of smoking cessation programs.
METHODS
The opinions of 89 smokers who were college freshmen were investigated and analyzed using a survey questionnaire.
RESULTS
Among the survey respondents, the largest percentage (47.2%) replied 'little satisfied' to the question on the with campus life. Of the participants, 57.3% considered that their health state was bad because of smoking. As to motives for smoking, 'curiosity' was most frequent. Smokers had more smoking friends than nonsmoking ones. The 82% of the smokers had experience in stopping smoking. Among smoking cessation methods, the self overcoming was most frequent(50.6%). During the survey, 28 smokers applied for the cessation program and they favored e-mails for information. E-mails were sent to them once in a week for 6 weeks and short messages were sent to their cell phone in order to encourage them to read the e-mails.
CONCLUSIONS
To encourage and maintain smoking cessation, it is recommended to have a personalized or small group program. More researches are needed to execute the program and evaluate results. Colleges need to have an innovative approach on smoking prevention and cessation services.
Gender Role Identity and Egalitarianism Consciousness among Adolescents
Young Sook Kim, Bok Rae Jeong
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):310-309.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study intends to investigate gender role identity and egalitarianism consciousness among adolescents and to determine the relationship between the two factors.
METHOD
Data were collected from 376 middle and high school students in U City. Tools used were the Korean Sexual Role Identity (Kim, J. H., 2005) and the Gender Egalitarianism Consciousness among Adolescents (Kim, 2002). Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient.
RESULTS
There was no significant difference between boys and girls in gender role identity. Boys' gender role identity was different according to school grade (t=-3.19, p=.00), frequency of mother's hugging (t=-2.28, p=.02) and girls' according to religion (t=-2.24, p=.03), mother's job (F=3.59, p=.02), father's education level (F=3.20, p= .04), mother's education level (F=3.24, p=.04), family harmony (F=7.28, p=.00), and frequency of mother's hugging (t=-2.41, p=.02). There was significant difference in egalitarianism consciousness according to gender (t=-12.70, p=.00). Boys' egalitarianism consciousness was different according to school type (t=.02, p=.00) and father's education level (F=4.97, p=.02), and girls' according to school grade (t=-4.21, p=.00), school type (t=-3.12, p=.00), father's level of education (F=3.78, p=.02), decision maker of important domestic matter (F=4.95, p=.00) and frequency of mother's hugging (t=2.53, p=.01). In Girls, sexual role identity and gender egalitarianism consciousness were significantly correlated with each other (r=.01, p=.04).
CONCLUSION
Through the study, it was found that boys' concern for sexual equality of was remarkably lower than girls. Therefore, it is necessary to offer curriculums for boys and to start social education for parents.
The School Related Stress and the Need of Mental Health Education among High School Students
Geum Sook Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):320-330.   Published online June 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to investigate the school related stress and the need of mental health education among adolescents.
METHOD
The subjects were selected by convenient sampling comprising of 1,049 high school students. The instrument of the study was the modified School Stress Scale by Kim (2002) and the Scale of Mental Health Education Need developed by Hyun et al.(2005).
RESULTS
School-related stress and the need of mental health education were higher in female students than male ones. Among the types of stress, stress related to academic activities was highest for all students. The need of stress management was highest, which was followed by the need of self-management. As for the need of mental health education and school-related stress according to general characteristics, the need was significantly different according to the gender, grade, and experience in mental health education, and school-related stress was significantly different according to gender and grade.
CONCLUSION
This study revealed that there was a correlation between school-related stress and the need of mental health education in high school students. This study also suggested the basic information and framework for planning, developing, and providing the school based mental health promotion education for the high school students.
Correlations among Internet Games Addiction, Self-esteem and Physical Health in Middle School Students
Ae Ran Joo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):331-339.   Published online June 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to identify correlations among internet games addiction (IGA), self-esteem and physical health in middle school students.
METHODS
A total of 428 middle school students were selected through simple random sampling. Data were collected from the 15th to 30th of March, 2006. Data were analyzed using SPSS/PC program by frequency, chi2-test, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Stepwise Multiple Regression.
RESULTS
1. According to the results of analyzing the degree of IGA, the addicted group was 1.9%. 2. Analysis of IGA according to the general characteristics showed that there were statistically significant differences in on-line friend, using time and major leisure. 3. Analysis of physical health according to the general characteristics showed that there were statistically significant differences in on-line friend and off-line friend. 4. IGA was in a significantly negative correlation with selfesteem. 5. In the results of regression, using time was identified as a factor influencing the IGA.
CONCLUSION
Considering the results above, we need to develop IGA prevention programs to enhance physical health and self-esteem and to control using time.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing