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Volume 5 (1); June 1994
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Original Articles
Planning Health Promotion Program in Workplace
Kyeong Ja Chun, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):5-29.   Published online June 30, 1994
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In recent years, interests in health promotion have been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as lead ing causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and epidemiologic findings linking individual risk to morbidity and mortality. It is not surprising that the workplace has been targeted as a promising setting for health promotion. In Korea, national attention to the opportunities for workplace health promotion began in the first 1990s. But there is no in depth study to identify the relating factors to the health promotion program in the workplace. The objective of this study is behavioral and physical characteristics to find that in crease the person's risk for a range of health problems and to analysis other characteristics to influence the degree of his/her intention to change health behavior. In addition, this study is purposed to present the process of planning health promotion program in the workplace. To accomplish these objectives, one workplaces was selected. And 363 employees in those workplaces were served as subjects for the study. Major findings in this study are as follows. (1) They have many risk factors such as smoking, drinking, lack of sleep, law rate of regular exercise, irregular eating, stress. (2) Some of the health risk factors such as smoking, drinking, and stress have the negative correlation to the intention to change. (3) Among cognitive and socio-environmental factors, significant predictors to the intention are attitude and social support. (4) In the cluster analysis to segment the target population in to homogeneous unit, three clusters of lifestyle are specified. (5) Smoking cessation and exercise program are planned for the risk group to change their behavior.
A Study on Health Behavior and Utilization of Health Service of Residents in Low-Income Areas
Yeon Kang Chung, Seung Eui Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):30-52.   Published online June 30, 1994
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The purpose of this study is to look into the health behavior and utilization of health service, and the factors which have influence on both of them. In order to research them, it visited home and interviewed selecting randomly 300 subjects who can understand the purpose of this study, want to participate and are possible to interview. Questionnaries survey was administered during the period from April.6 to May.12. 1993. Collected materials analysis were dealt with a method of SPSS PC Program and used percentage. Mean, SD. t-test, chi2-test, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Multiple Regression and One-way ANOVA for hypothesis verification. The results of this study are as follows. 1. The hypothesis is that there will be a significant difference in performance degree of health behavior by general characteristics(sex, age, educational background, occupation, religion) of subjects. According to the results, it turned out that sex(P=.035), educational background(P=.0432), and occupation(P=.440) appeared to be a significant difference as P<.05. 2. The hypothesis that the more interesting degree on health of subjects have, the better they performance for health behavior was supported (r=.2552, P<.001). 3. The hypothesis that the healthier subjects are, the better they performance for health behavior was supported(r=.5262, P<.001). The highest correlation was seen between the healthier subjects and health behavior. According to the results of multiple regression analysis with interesting degree on health and healthier subjects as dependent variables, it turned out that R2 was 35% and had a significant difference. 4. The hypothesis is that there will be a difference in the utilization of health service by general characteristics(sex, age, educational background, occupation, religion). According to. the results, it showed that educational background (dental clinic), religion(pharmacy) had an influence on the frequency of utilization of facilities (P<.05).
Correlations among Lifestyle and Health Status: A comparative study between nurses and clients
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):53-63.   Published online June 30, 1994
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Health could be maintained and promoted by pursuing an active healthy lifestyle. Life-style include health habits and behavior pattern such as exercise, diatry change, weight control, stress management et al. The objectives of this studies are (1) to analyze recognition and practice of lifestyle between nurses and non-nurses, (2) to analyze health status of clients which presented healthy lifestyle, (3) to analyze factors that affected healthy lifestyle. The lifestyle assessment questionnaire is divided into ten sections: competence in selfcare, nutritional practices, physical activity, sleep patterns, stress management, self-actualization, sense of purpose, relation with others, environmental control, and use of health care system. The major results are as follows : (1) The level of recognition and practice of lifestyle was not high. Nurses showed more higher score than non nurses in lifestyle area such as competence in selfcare, stress management, environmental control, and use of health care system. (2) Good health status and lifestyle presented positive relation. (3) In mutiple classifiction analysis, competence in selfcare, nutritional practices, physical activity, sleep patterns, stress management, environmental control, and use of health care system had significant relation to independent variables. (4) Change of concept for healthy lifestyle after this survey was higher in nurses group and the most concern area was stress management. To sum up, lifestyle pattern of nurses as health professional was not desirably high. Therefore nurses ownself should effort to practice healthy lifestyle prior to others, and then educate importance of lifestyle for health promotion and disease prevention. In conclusion, it will be useful to consider significant lifestyle factors that was be identified in this study to develop health promotion program.
A study on the Family Caregiver Burden for Psychiatric Out-Patients
Yeon Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):64-80.   Published online June 30, 1994
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The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting family caregiver burden, and to identify the relationship between family caregiver burden and family function/self-care of psychiatric out-patient. These data were collected by questionnaire from September 20 to October 8, 1993. The subjects were 285 family caregiver of psychiatric out-patients. The instruments used in this study were Caregiver Burden Inventory(CBI) by Novak(1989), self-care performing by Yu(1992), and Family APGAR by Smilkstein(1979). The data were analyzed by cronbach's alpha, mean, standard deviation, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Stepwise Multiple Regression with SPSS/pc+ program. The result of this study were as follows ; 1. The means of family caregiver Burden revealed total 2.00, Time-Dependence Burden 78, developmental Burden 2.22, physical Burden 1.90, social Burden 1.43, emotional Burden 2.18, financial Burden 1.51. family caregiver burden score showed moderate level. time-dependence burden showed the highest score and social burden showed the lowest score. 2. The means of family function revealed total 5.67. 7 through high-21.4% (61), low through 3-38.6%(110). family function score showed moderate level. 3. The means of patient's self-care performance revealed total 137.71. self-care performance showed moderate level. 4. A ststistically significant correlation between family caregiver burden and patient's demographic variables, age (F=3.83, p<.01), marrital status(F=3.50, p<.01), job(F=3.17, p<.01), diagnosis(F=4.46, p<.01), income (F=4.46, p<.01). No significant differences between family caregiver burden and prevalent period, religion, sex (p>.05). 5. A ststistically significant correlation between family caregiver burden and family's demographic variables, age (F=7.34, p<.01), sex(t=-2.63, p<.01), education level(F=7.61, p<.01), income (F=8.13, p<.01), relation with patient (F=6.92, p<.01), job(F=2.03, p<.05), medical service (F=3.89, p<.05), presence of chronically ill without patient(t=-2.01, p<.05) 6. Family function was the highest factor predicting family caregiver burden(R=.4168, R2=.1737), low education level of family, patient's self-care, family income accounted for 36% in family caregiver burden.
A Study on Influencing Factors in Health Promoting Lifestyles of College Students
Mi Yeong Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):81-96.   Published online June 30, 1994
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The primary purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting health promoting lifestyles of college students on the basis of Pender's Health Promotion Model. The subjects were 1,159 students of one university in Seoul. These data were collected by self reporting questionnaire from April 19 to May 3, 1993. This study examined health promoting lifestyles, cognitive-perceptual factors: perceived health status, perceived importance of health, health locus of control, and health conception, and modifying factors: sex, grade, major, residence type, and attendance at a health care course. The instruments used in this study were Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile by Walker et al. (1987), Health Value Scale by Wallston et al. (1976), Health Locus of Control by Wallston et al. (1978), and Health Conception Scale by Laffrey(1986). The data were analyzed by Cronbach's alpha, mean, standard deviation, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, and Stepwise Multiple Regression with SPSS PC+ Program. The results were as follows : 1. The means of health promoting lifestyles revealed total 3.33, self actualization 3.74, health responsibility 2.72, exercise 2.80, nutrition 3.55, interpersonal surpport 3.76, and stress management 2.96. Interpersonal support showed the highest score and health responsibility showed the lowest score. 2. No significant differences between sex, grade, major, and residence type, and health promoting lifestyles Were founded(p>.05). Attendants at a health care course showed a significant higher score than nonattendants (p<.001). Male showed a significant higher score in exercise subscale, female showed significant higher scores in health responsibility, nutrition, interpersonal support, stress management subscales(p<.001), residence type showed a significant difference in nutrition subscale(p<.001). 3. No significant differences between perceived health status and sex, grade, major, residence type, and attendance at a health care course were founded(p>.05). Perceived importance of health showed no differences among sex, grade, major, and residence type(p>.05), showed only in attendance at a health care course (p<.001). Attendants at a health care course showed a significant higher score than nonattendants(p<.001). No significant differences between health conception and sex, grade, major, and residence type were founded (p>.05), only significant difference between health conception and attendance at a health care course was founded(p<.05). Nonattendants showed a significant higher score in clinical health conception, attendants showed a significant higher score in wellbeing health conception(p<.05). 4. A significant positive correlation between health promoting lifestyles and perceived health status was founded(r=.2415, p<.001). A significant positive correlation between health promoting lifestyles and perceived importance of health was founded (r=.1475, p<.001). The health promoting lifestyles revealed significant positive correlations in internal and powerful others locus of control (r=.3187, p<.001: r=.1475, p<.001), but revealed a significant negative correlation in chance locus of control(r=-.997, p<.001). A significant positive correlation between health promoting lifestyles and clinical health conception and wellbeing health conception were founded (r=.1241, p<.001 : r=.3047, p<.001). 5. Perceived health status was the highest factor predicting health promoting lifestyles of college students(R=.3415, R2=11.62). Perceived health' status, perceived improtance of health, internal locus of control, wellbeing health conception, powerful others locus of control accounted for 28.19% in health promoting lifestyle patterns. In conclusion, college students who reported more helath promoting lifestyles evaluated their health positively, perceived importance of health highly, perceived their health as affected by theirselves, powerful others but not by chance or luck, and accepted health as high level wellness rather than merely the absence of illness. Those who attending at a health care course had healthier lifestyle patterns. And attendance at a health care course had significant. correlations in these cognitive-perceptual factors. Further studies are required to identify reasons of attending a health care course, and to compare health promoting lifestyles pre-post attending a course related to health care.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing