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Volume 20 (3); September 2009
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Original Articles
A Study on the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Meaning of Life in Higher Grade Elementary School Students
Kyung Ah Kang, Shin Jeong Kim, Mi Kyung Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):269-276.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between self-esteem and meaning of life in higher grade elementary school students.
METHODS
Four hundred eighty four elementary school students in their 4 ~ 6th-grade at S, G and C City were recruited by convenient sampling. Data were collected from August to October, 2008 using a self-reported questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS/WIN 12.0 program with mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan's test, and Pearson's correlation.
RESULTS
The average score of meaning of life was 3.07 +/- 0.38 and that of self-esteem was 3.43 +/- 0.62. There were significant differences in self-esteem according to variables region and religion, and in meaning of life scores according to variables region, grade, sex and religion. There was a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and meaning of life.
CONCLUSION
Self-esteem and meaning of life should be considered as important factors for healthy development in the elementary school period. Self-esteem should be considered as a main content in developing programs for finding meaning of life for higher grade elementary school students.
The Prevalence of Depression and Related Factors among Adults
Eun Ok Park, Moon Doo Kim, Young Ju Son, Hyo Jeong Song, Seong Chul Hong
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):277-284.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate depression prevalence and related factors of depression in Jeju Province.
METHODS
The study sample selected using randomized cluster sampling method, and the unit of cluster was 25 households. Data were collected from 1275 adults in 723 households through home visit interview. The response rate was 89.4%. The instrument used for measuring depression was CES-D, the cut-off score was 21. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression.
RESULTS
The prevalence of depression in Jeju was 18.1%. The significant differences were found with depression prevalence rate by the group of gender, age, inhabited area, marital status, educational status, monthly household income, life satisfaction, socioeconomic status, perceived health status, morbidity during last 2 weeks, perceived stress, perceived fatigue, participation in social activities, and family life satisfaction. The most predictive factors among those variables were perceived fatigue with 17.93 of odds ratio, family life satisfaction with 9.86 odds ratio, and perceived stress with 9.66 of odds ratio.
CONCLUSION
The prevention and management of depression program development was suggested and mental health promotion program for the prevention of depression was suggested.
A Meta Analysis on the Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Density among Middle-aged and Older Women
Ji Soo Yoo, Jee Won Park, Suk Jeong Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):285-295.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
This study was to examine the effectiveness of exercise for bone mineral density (BMD).
METHODS
Four investigators reviewed English articles from Pub Med and CINAHL, selecting randomized controlled trials on exercise programs for middle-aged and older women. Out of 25 studies identified, 14 that satisfied with the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. The quality of the studies was assessed using recognized methods and the effect size was calculated as a Hedges' g using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2.0. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine. Subgroup analysis included changes in BMD according to exercise style.
RESULTS
Weight bearing exercise was effective (Q = 20.1, p > .05, ES = 0.32), and resistance exercise was effective in case of comparing to pre and post intervention (Q = 4.15, p = .98, ES = 0.14). At the femoral neck, 9 study groups were homogeneous and the experimental groups demonstrated a positive effect on BMD (Q = 19.5, p > .05, ES = 0.33). In contrast, marked heterogeneity (Q = 33.3, p < 0.01) was apparent in 7 study groups evaluating trochanter.
CONCLUSION
These findings suggest that weight bearing is effective for BMD of the femoral neck, and is relevant to the non-pharmacological treatment of bone loss for middle-aged and older women.
Factors Influencing Health Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescents
Jae Soon Yoo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):296-306.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to identify variables influencing health risk behaviors in adolescents on the basis of the PRECEDE model.
METHODS
Data were collected from 434 middle school students in Chungbuk Province for two weeks in July 2008. The instrument for this study was a self-reported questionnaire. The SPSS/WIN 12.0 program was used for data analysis, which included t-test, one way ANOVA, Scheffe's test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS
Adolescents' level of health risk behaviors (47.32 +/- 7.98) was below medium. Physical inactivity (6.73 +/- 2.23) and Internet addictive behavior (6.36 +/- 2.11) were major health risk behaviors. The perceived level of school health education (30.74 +/- 9.84) was low. Family function and general self efficacy explained 14.3% of variance in health risk behaviors. Family function was a major predictor of health risk behaviors (R2 = .108, p = .000). However, the perceived level of school health education was not a significant predictor of health risk behaviors.
CONCLUSION
For the prevention of health risk behaviors in adolescents, it is necessary that the family and the school collaborate with each other in educational strategies in order to strengthen influential factors such as family function and general self-efficacy.
The Effect of a Community-Based Selp-Help Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Eun Young Kim, Ae Young So
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):307-315.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
This study was done to assess the effects of a self-help intervention on clinical, lifestyle and psycho-social outcomes in patients with Type II diabetes.
METHODS
Eligible adults with Type II diabetes were randomly assigned to either the intervention group receiving the diabetes self-help or the control group receiving usual care. Of the 36 patients who completed the study, 15 were in the intervention group and 21 were in the control group. The self-help group consisted of six weekly sessions covering aspects of diabetes self-care and using continuing education, discussion, and structured social activities. Outcomes included changes in glycemic control, knowledge, self-management behaviors, diabetes-related self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Analysis of covariance was used to compare outcomes between the groups, adjusting for baseline measures.
RESULTS
After the six week intervention, significant improvements from the baseline were observed in the measurements of self-management behaviors, diabetes-related self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life for the intervention group.
CONCLUSION
The findings provide preliminary evidence that a diabetes self-help group intervention can benefit diabetes patients in self-management behaviors, diabetes-related self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. However, larger longitudinal studies are needed to determine the most efficacious self-management methods to sustain long-term glycemic control and psychological well-being.
A Study on Teenagers' Internet Addiction and Influencing Factors
Chun Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):316-326.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine teenagers' Internet addiction and to find factors influencing it.
METHODS
Data were collected from 596 middle and high school students between June 1 and June 20, 2009 with a self-rating questionnaire. The data were processed with SPSS/WIN 12.0.
RESULTS
(1) 20.3% of the students were spending over three hours a day in Internet use. The percentages of mild and serious Internet addiction were 22.3 and 2.1, respectively. (2) The stronger Internet addiction was, the higher stress was and the lower social support was. There was a negative correlation between stress and social support (r = -.296, p < .01). There was also a positive correlation between Internet addiction and stress (r = .264, p < .01) while a negative correlation between Internet addiction and social support (r = -.127, p < .01). (3) Among the subjects' characteristics, sex, school and family type, frequency of processed food intake, average daily Internet use hour and sleeping hour, subjective health perception, and satisfaction level with parents and family made difference in the Internet addiction level.
CONCLUSION
The result of this study will provide useful background data for the selection of target population, stress management and social support promotion programs to prevent teenagers' Internet addiction.
A Comparative Study on the Applied Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Insomnia in the Elderly by Sasangin Constitution: Based on Tae Yin In, So Yang In, and So Yin In
Sohyune R Sok
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):327-334.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
This study was to compare and examine the effects of auricular acupressure therapy on insomnia in the elderly by Sasangin constitution.
METHODS
This study was designed to compare three groups according to Sasangin constitution (Tae Yin In, So Yang In, and So Yin In) in terms of the changeful effects of auricular acupressure therapy on insomnia in the elderly. The subjects were 81 (Tae Yin In: 28, So Yang In: 26, and So Yin In: 27) persons aged over 65 years who were living in Seoul or Gyunggi Province. Data were collected from May, 2007 to July, 2008, and analyzed by SPSS/WIN 16.0.
RESULTS
1. The effect of auricular acupressure on insomnia in Tae Yin In was higher than that in So Yang In, and its effect in So Yang In was higher than that in So Yin In. 2. The effect was highest after the 4th treatment in Tae Yin In, after the 5th treatment in So Yang In, and after the 6th treatment in So Yin In.
CONCLUSIONS
The use of auricular acupressure therapy in consideration of individual elders' Sasangin constitution can maximize its effect to relieve insomnia in the elderly.
The Sense of Mastery and Health-Promoting Behaviors in the Vulnerable Female Elderly of Urban Areas
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):335-342.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
This study was to identify the degree of the sense of mastery and health-promoting behaviors in the vulnerable female elderly of urban areas, and to determine factors influencing their health-promoting behaviors.
METHODS
The subjects were 253 vulnerable female elders aged over 60 in D City. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey. Analysis of data was done with the SPSS/WIN program.
RESULTS
The mean score of the sense of control was 15.8. It was significantly different according to living arrangement, and subjective health status. The mean score of health-promoting behavior was 3.8. It was significantly different according to living arrangement and subjective health status. Health-promoting behavior was affected more highly in subjects with a low degree of sense of mastery than in those with a medium degree of sense of mastery.
CONCLUSION
These results suggest that the sense of mastery is an important variable for health-promoting behavior. These findings may give useful information for developing health-promoting programs focused on the sense of mastery in vulnerable female elderly adults.
The Effect of a Group Counseling Program on Depression and Suicidal Prevention in High School Students
Young Sook Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):343-350.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a group counseling program on high school students'depression and suicidal ideation.
METHODS
This research was conducted as a quasi-experimental pretest and posttest control and experimental group methodological comparison study. The subjects were 25 high school students (Exp = 12, Cont = 13) in U City. The depression and suicide prevention program in this study was based on the Ellis' ABC Model. The experimental group participated in the program through eight sessions, but the control group did not receive treatment. Data were collected from November 4 to November 28, 2008, and analyzed using the SPSS/WIN program by frequency, Mann-Whitney, means, standard deviation and Wilcoxon signed rank test.
RESULTS
There was statistically significant difference in depression (z = -2.983, p = .003) between the two groups. Suicidal ideation also decreased significantly (z = -2.847, p = .004) in the experimental group.
CONCLUSIONS
After the eight sessions of the group counseling program for preventing depression and suicidal ideation, it was found that the program was effective to lower the score of depression and suicidal ideation. The results of this study suggest that a school-based prevention program for adolescents should be developed according to depression and suicidal ideation level.
Effects of Lecture on Oral Presentation on Anger Expression, Assertive Behavior, and Self-Esteem in Nursing Students
Oh Gye Kwag, Ki Wol Sung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):351-360.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to develop a lecture on oral presentation and to evaluate changes in anger expression, assertive behavior, and self-esteem after lecture on oral presentation.
METHODS
The design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were university students in nursing, of which 17 were assigned to the experimental group and 15 to the control group. The education was carried out for 2 hours, once a week for 14 weeks. Data was analyzed with SPSS/WIN 14 program, and included chi-square test, independent t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA.
RESULTS
Lecture on oral presentation showed significant differences in the changes of anger expression (F = 10.122, p = .003) and assertive behavior (F = 8.498, p = .007).
CONCLUSION
Findings suggest that this lecture on oral presentation was effective in changing students' anger expression and assertive behavior. Therefore this lecture on oral presentation is recommended for inclusion in education for university students in nursing.
Family Functioning Perceived by Caregiver Who Support the Elderly
Young Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):361-370.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study attempted to identify family functioning recognized by caregiver who support the elderly.
METHODS
Data was collected from 264 caregivers who live with elderly using questionnaires. The performance, satisfaction and importance of family functioning was assessed using the modified FFFS by Kang (1987) consisted of three dimension-'Relationship between Individual Family Members', 'Relationship between family and subsystem' and 'Relationship between family and broader social units'. The data was analyzed using SPSS/WIN by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and pearson's correlation.
RESULTS
The subjected Families showed a median level of performance (mean 4.06 +/- 0.65) and a high level of satisfaction (mean 1.04 +/- 0.71) in family functioning. Families recognized importance of family functioning above median level (mean 4.65 +/- 0.99). There was statistically significant difference in family functioning according to and duration of illness, illness and ADL of the elderly. In dimension of the relationship between individual family members and relationship between family and subsystem, there are significantly positive correlation among all aspect of family functioning. In relationship between family and social units, there are negative correlations between performance and importance (r = -.215) and between satisfaction and importance (r = -.194) while there are positive relationship between performance and satisfaction.
CONCLUSION
Considering the results of this study, family-focused nursing interventions for families with the elderly need to be developed.
A Survey on the Characteristics of Vulnerable Families in a City
Kyung Won Choi, In Sook Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):371-380.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
This study aimed at describing the characteristics and nursing needs of vulnerable families in a City.
METHODS
A total of 427 vulnerable families enrolled in the Visiting Health Care Center in K-gu of S city were investigated in this study. Data were collected using questionnaires for one year from Jan to Dec, 2003, and analysed using mean, standard deviation and chi2.
RESULTS
Most of the vulnerable families investigated here showed many deficits, especially incomplete family structure (62.8%), financial problem (84.0%), lack of support (55.8%) were prevalent. The score of level of economic status in Family Capability for Self management (1.95 +/- 0.65) was lowest, and the score of perception of family problem and health of family members (2.62 +/- 0.78) was highest. The four family groups divided according to the total score of family management capability showed significant differences in family interaction, support, and coping domain. The total score of family management capability increased as family functioning-related problems decreased in the vulnerable families.
CONCLUSION
In order to find vulnerable families, and improve their family function, it is required to develop the systematic assesment tools, community supportive systems and nursing interventions for family strength.
A Study on Characteristic Factors Related to Low Back Pain and Mental Health of Pregnant Women
Myoung Ja Wang, Sang Won Lim, Sun Hye Jun, Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):381-389.   Published online September 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
The study was to explore the level of low back pain and characteristic factors influencing low back pain (LBP) and mental health during pregnancy.
METHODS
The subjects were a total of 383 healthy pregnant women in S City and K-Do. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation.
RESULTS
82.5% of the pregnant women answered the existence of LBP and 19.7% of them had high LBP. The preferred method of controlling LBP was 'Just endure' (42.3%). There were significant differences in pregnancy level (p < .05) and discomfort condition related to pregnancy (p < .01) according to low back pain. There were significant differences in pain intensity according to mental health. The correlation between pain level and pregnancy weeks (p < .001) and BMI in previous pregnancy (p < .001) was significant. The correlation between mental health and age was significant (p < .001).
CONCLUSION
The majority of the pregnant women experienced LBP during pregnancy. However, they were not offered the best method of controlling the pain. Thus, for preventing LBP during pregnancy, we recommend regular exercises and BMI control.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing